Yaşar Rota wrote the New Terminology of Rail and Transport

Yaşar Rota wrote the New Terminology of Railroad and Transport: The White Paper has reviewed the developments in the transport sector and the future challenges of these developments and the policy initiatives to be taken into consideration globally. Transport continues to be a key element of economic development, regional and social cohesion, but it also meets new challenges.
1 - TEXT RENDING RAILWAY AND TRANSPORTATION SECTOR
In recent years, there have been important developments that are of great interest to the transport sector. As a result of these developments, transportation sector and especially railway transportation have entered a structural and functional change process. When we look at the main legislation that constitutes and directs the infrastructure of this change, we see:
Turkey's National Program for the Adoption of the Acquis (Last 2008)
Turkey Transportation and Communication Strategy Target 2023 (2011)
Liberalization of Railway Transport Law No. 6461 About Turkey (May 1 2013)
11.Transport Maritime and Communication Results (5-7 September 2013)
Decree Decree No 655 on the Organization and Duties of the Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications (1 November 2011)
10. Development Plan (2014-2018) era begins
All the common goal of eliminating inequalities between modes of transport in Turkey, ensuring the contribution of the transport sector green and clean environment for the creation, reduction of oil use in the transport sector, a combined transportation systems pave the way for competitiveness with the world Creating the ground for the creation, urban and kentlerara main transportation The use of rail systems as axles.
Opening of 2-RAIL ROAD TO SPECIAL SECTOR
At the beginning of the 1990, the European Union (EU) outlined some limited practices regarding the independent management of the railway enterprises and the opening of the market to the private sector and the promotion of the railways through infrastructure management and the separation of accounts between railway enterprises.
The EU required the restructuring of the railway system in the Community countries with the 29 July 1991 date and the Council Directive 91 / 440 / EEC. The objectives of the Directive are:
To ensure the administration (public, private) freedom of railway organizations.
To distinguish between railway management and infrastructure management.
Improving the financial structures of organizations.
To ensure that international railway organizations use the networks of member states.
To facilitate the adaptation of Community railways to single market requirements.
To increase their productivity. The EU also wants the railway infrastructure to be in the hands of the state as a devlet monopoly AB.
As of 2000, however, more innovation is needed in the content of legal measures packages. The Commission continues the reform process, which started with the 91 / 440 Directive, as a ini First Railway Package ini.
2001 adopted in 1.
Opening of the international railway market.
To draw a general framework for explaining the relationship between the development of European railways, the state and infrastructure manager, state and railway enterprises, infrastructure manager and railway enterprises (Directive 2001 / 12 / EC).
Obligations to be met by the bidders in order to provide services in the European railway network (Directive 2001 / 13 / EC).
Identify the policies on capacity allocation and the remuneration of infrastructure (Directive 2001 / 14 / EC).
2004 accepted in 2.
A common approach to railway safety (Directive 2004 / 49 / EC).
Requirements for interoperability of high-speed and conventional railway systems in Europe (Directive 2004 / 50 / EC).
Opening of the national and international freight railway market in the whole European network (Directive 2004 / 51 / EC).
Establishment of the European Railway Agency (ERA) (Regulation (EC) 1335 / 2008 corrected by 881 / 2004).
As a result; The 15 2003 1 2006 1 2007 XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX
2007 accepted in 3.
Opening of international passenger services to competition (Directive 2007 / 58 / EC).
Establishing procedures for certification of machinists (Directive 2007 / 59 / EC).
Includes basic rights for passengers (Regulation 1371 / 2007).
Within the scope of this package, international passenger services are being liberalized since 1 January 2010. Within the scope of this package, all passengers traveling nationally or internationally will have equal rights.
4.Dembride Package: As mentioned in the EU's 2011 White Book, 4.Dimensional Package 3 is evaluated under different headings.
* Opening of the National Passenger Market: Opening of the national railway passenger market to competition, including routes operated under public service obligations, as well as open access lines. (Directive 91 / 440 / EC on the development of Community railways and reorganization of Regulation 1370 / 2007 on passenger transport services by rail and road.)
* Infrastructure Management: The infrastructure manager to operate in a way to optimize the use of infrastructure capacity and infrastructure management to provide access to infrastructure and railway-related services in a way that does not discriminate. (Directive 91 / 440 / EC on the development of Community railways and the reorganization of Directive 2011 / 14 / EC on the allocation and pricing of railway infrastructure.)
* Interoperability and Safety: Disposal of existing administrative and technical constraints despite all the regulations, in particular reducing administrative costs, accelerating procedures, increasing scale economies for railway enterprises and establishing a common safety and interoperability approach to avoid discrimination. (Directive 2004 / 49 / EC on the safety of Community railways Directive 2008 / 57 on the establishment of the Directive 881 / 2004 / EC and the European Railway Agency (ERA) on the interoperability of Community railway systems editing.)
3-EU'S WHITE BOOKS (WHITE PAPER)
White Books are documents which can be transformed into EU activities on various subjects by the EU Commission; it is mostly the next stage of green books. If approved by the Council, the White Paper may become a larda Action Program “in the EU.
For example, the White Paper: Taşıma European Transport Policy for 2010: Time to Decision, published by the Commission to support intermodal transport is the focal point of combined transport. The book serves the purpose of reconstructing the balance between modes of transport.
The purpose of the Commission policy on intermodal freight transport; It supports the door-to-door efficient transport of goods using two or more modes of transport in the integrated transport chain. Each mode of transport; It has its own unique advantages such as potential capacity, high security level, flexibility, low energy consumption, low environmental impact.
Also; Intermodal transport makes it possible for each mode to assume its own role in creating more efficient, cost-effective and sustainable transport chains.
Road transport was expected to increase by 1998 between 2010 and 50. In accordance with the decisions of the Gothenburg Council of June 2001; One of the aims of the White Paper was to restore the balance between modes.
The Commission's policy with an integrated package of measures; aims to limit the increase in road transport by 38. White Book; it aims at achieving this by developing short-distance seaway, rail and inland water transport, which are alternatives to road transport.
For this reason, action plans will focus on supporting alternatives to road transport, especially for the ın long distance c transport leg. This will not only reduce congestion, but will also provide road safety and have a positive impact on the environment.
The Council and Parliament adopted the Marco Polo program at 22 July 2003. The aim of the program was to help shift the expected increase in international road freight to short-haul maritime, rail and inland water transport. The precursor of the Marco Polo program was the “PACT for Combined Transport ın program. The Commission proposed the 14 in July 2004, Marco Polo II, the follow-up program of the Marco Polo program.
The European Commission published its latest White Paper on 28 March 2011. The White Paper ın Road Map for a Single European Transport Area küresel Towards a Competitive and Resource-Effective Transportation System Avrupa envisages the provision of competitive and resource-efficient transport throughout the EU by 2050 and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the sector within the framework of the EU's global commitments.
The White Paper is reviewing global developments in the transport sector, future challenges for these developments and policy initiatives to be taken into account. Transport continues to be a key element of economic development, regional and social cohesion, but it also meets new challenges.
In fact, the White Paper has to cover the transport policies of all countries. In the context of overcoming the most effective economic crisis in the world since the 1930s, the world's recent economic crisis has led to a sudden increase in prices of oil and other goods, indicative of increasing imbalances in the use of global resources.
At the same time, the international community also agreed that the greenhouse gas emissions in the world should be severely reduced. For this reason, almost completely petroleum-dependent, more greenhouse gas emissions in 1990 compared to the 2012 year, there is a bad future for the transport sector, which is a major source of noise and local air pollution.
The White Paper takes into account the challenges associated with the fundamental change in the transport system, the encouragement of abandoning oil, and the creation of modern infrastructure and multimodal mobility supported by intelligent management and information systems.
These challenges were put forward together with a bir Declaration har and a new lu Energy Efficiency Plan iri that provided a roadmap for a low-carbon economy as of 2050. This is an integral part of the ı Resource Efficiency inin initiative.
White Book is preparing in 3 section Beyaz
* Section I - Existing Trends and Future Challenges: Eliminating Petroleum: Based on recent assessments of past developments and current trends, it identifies the challenges that the transport system may face in the future. This chapter clarifies the limits of greenhouse gas emissions, in particular in the context of actions against climate change.
* Part II - 2050 Vision: Integrated, sustainable and effective mobility network: This section tries to formulate a reasonable and desirable method to deal with these challenges with the understanding of 2050 and to provide better mobility services for citizens and activities. This vision is accompanied by targets for policy actions planned to follow in the next decade.
* Chapter III - Strategy: Policies to guide change: It is the functional part of the White Paper. This chapter describes the initiatives to be taken into account in the next decade to achieve the goals set out in Part I, to put the transport sector on a sustainable path and to bridge the gap between vision and reality.
4 - MULTI MODEL TRANSPORTATION
We know that the transportation of goods in a short time, economic and safe to reach the target of the selection of transportation types is gaining importance. In this context, it was inevitable to use more than one type of transportation in the transportation of the cargo from the exit point to the destination.
Multimodal transport, intermodal transportation and combined transportation are used in this transportation system, which is made by the integration of more than one type of transportation and is increasing rapidly.
Especially fulfill two conditions combined transport in the EU and Turkey was adopted in the lead-off related experts. The first of these conditions is that the transportation includes at least two of the vehicles such as road transport vehicle, train, barge, ship and airplane;
In fact, it is a general concept that includes multimodal transport, intermodal transport and combined transport. Combined transport is the special form of inter-species transport.
The general definitions of combined transport to better understand and explain the following are:
• Multimodal Transportation: The transportation of the goods is given by two or more types of transport and the general mode of transport.
• Intermodal Transportation; Moving of the goods to be moved (container, mobile body 'swap body', trailer) and the entire transport chain (different types of transport) as a load is defined as the same unit load.
• Combined Transport: It is defined as the main part of the transportation chain between the types of transportation by rail or inland waterway or sea and starting and ending feet as short as possible. The EU imposes a restriction in the main transport zone that the rail, inland waterway or maritime transport line must cross the 100 kilometer as far as the aviator.
Combined transportation, as defined above, is a highly rational set of transport types in which transport modes are used most technically and economically.
In this context, both effective transportation is provided and the system is able to recover from the disturbances in the balance. In fact, the combined transport destination is shifting the high share of the highway to the rail or maritime / inland waterways.




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