It is a project to provide rail transportation through the tunnel tunnel under the sea in the Bosphorus. With the Marmaray project, Asia and Europe will be connected to the uninterrupted railway expedition.
What is the history of Marmaray?
The first railway tunnel to be crossed by the Bosphorus was prepared as a draft in 1860.
The idea about a railway tunnel under the Istanbul Strait was first proposed in 1860. But where the tunnel planned to pass under the Bosphorus would pass through the deepest parts of the Bosphorus, it would not be possible to build the tunnel above or under the seabed, using old techniques; and so this tunnel was planned as a tunnel over the columns built on the seabed in the design.
Such ideas and ideas were further evaluated in the following 20-30 year-round and a similar design was developed in 1902; in this design, a railway tunnel passing under the Bosphorus is envisaged; but in this design, a tunnel is placed on the seabed. Since then, many different ideas and ideas have been tried and new technologies have given more freedom to design.
In which countries are the projects which can be considered as the pioneer of Marmaray?
Within the scope of the Marmaray Project, the technique to be used to cross the Istanbul Strait (immersed tube tunnel technique) 19. It has been developed since the end of the century. The first immersed tube tunnel, built in 1894, was built in North America for sewage purposes. The first tunnels using this technique for traffic purposes were also built in the United States. The first is the Michigan Central Railways tunnel built during the 1906-1910 years.
In Europe, the country that first applied this technique was the Netherlands; and the Maas Tunnel built in Rotterdam was opened in 1942. Japan was the first to implement this technique in Asia, and the two-tube highway tunnel (Aji River Tunnel) built in Osaka was put into service in 1944. By contrast, the number of these tunnels has remained limited until 1950s have developed a robust and proven industrial technique; After the development of this technique, the construction of large scale projects in many countries was started.
When was the first report prepared for Istanbul?
The desire for the construction of a public transport link between Istanbul and the east of the Bosphorus, which has passed under the Bosphorus, has gradually increased in the early years of 1980, and as a result, the first comprehensive feasibility study was conducted and reported in 1987. As a result of this study, it has been determined that such a connection is technically feasible and cost-effective and the route we have seen in the project today has been chosen as the best among a number of routes.
Year 1902 ve Sarayburnu - Üsküdar (Strom, Lindman and Hilliker Design)
Year 2005 burn Sarayburnu - Üsküdar
The project, which was outlined in 1987, was discussed in the following years, and in approximately 1995, it was decided to carry out more detailed studies and studies and to update feasibility studies including passenger demand forecasts in 1987. These studies have been completed in 1998 and the results have shown the accuracy of the results obtained and revealed that the project will offer many advantages to the people living and working in Istanbul and will reduce the rapidly increasing problems related to traffic congestion in the city.
How is Marmaray financed?
In the 1999 Turkey and Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) financing agreement has been signed between. This loan agreement forms the basis of the projected financing for the Istanbul Bosphorus Crossing section of the Project.
BC1 and Engineering and Consultancy Services Loan Agreement
TK-P 15 Loan Agreement was signed between the Undersecretariat of Treasury and the Bank of Japan's International Cooperation Bank (JBIC) on 17.09.1999 and published in the official newspaper 15.02.2000 and 23965.
With this loan agreement, 12,464 Billion Japanese New loans were provided; 3,371 Billion for Japanese New Engineering and Consultancy Services, 9,093 Billion Japanese New Throat Tube is intended for Transition Construction.
Note Agreement and Loan Agreement on the second tranche of this loan, 18 On February 2005, negotiations between the Undersecretariat of Treasury and Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) have been completed for the purpose of providing Official Development Assistance (ODA) loan from the Japanese Government. The Japanese Government has agreed to provide a long-term, low-interest loan of 98,7 billion Japanese Yen (approximately 950 million USD). Both loans have 7,5 interest and 10 year grace period and total 40 year term financing.
The agreement numbered TK-P15 contains the following important points:
Engineering and Consultancy Services and Railway Bosphorus Tube Crossing Works are decided to be made according to the rules of Japanese credit institution JBIC. Only the companies of the countries listed as eligible source countries can participate in the tenders to be financed by credit income.
The eligible countries for the construction tender are the countries listed in Japan and the Help List - Section 1 and Section - 2, which are generally outside the US and European countries.
All important stages of the tender and contractual specifications are required to be approved by the Japanese Credit Agency.
It is foreseen that the Project will be established by the Ministry of Transport (PIU), which will be responsible for the construction and design phases of the tender and the completion of the operation and maintenance phases after the completion of the construction.
CR1 Loan Agreements
Loan Agreement 22.693 TR; The decision of the Council of Ministers on 650 / 200 / 22 and 10 / 2004 dated 2004 Million Euro was signed between the Undersecretariat of Treasury and the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the first tranche of the 8052 Million Euro loan.
This loan has a floating interest rate and 15 2013 is a non-repayable 22 year term.
Loan Agreement 23.306 TR; The decision of the Council of Ministers on 650 / 450 / 20 date and 02 / 2006 was signed by the Undersecretariat of Treasury and the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the second tranche of the 2006 Million Euro loan.
This loan has a floating interest rate and will be repaid in 8 monthly periods after 6 year after the use of the credit tranche.
1 Million EUR part of the Financing of the CR650 business was obtained from the European Investment Bank. The remaining part of the 217 Million Euro loan was signed with the Council of Europe Development Bank on the date of 24.06.2008. Thus, 1 of the loan required for the CR100 Job was provided.
CR2 Loan Agreements
Studies have shown that there is a need for 440 tools for the Project.
Loan Agreement 23.421 TR; The decision of the Council of Ministers on 400 / 14 / 06 date and 2006 / 2006 decision has been taken by the Undersecretariat of Treasury and the European Investment Bank (EIB).
This loan has a floating interest rate and will be repaid in 8 monthly periods after 6 year after the use of the credit tranche.
What are the objectives of the Marmaray Project?
With this project, as a result of the comprehensive scientific studies carried out in Istanbul since 1984, a project that combines the existing suburban railway lines with a tube tunnel under the Bosphorus with the project of a ler Bosphorus Railway Crossing “which will be integrated with the existing and planned rail systems in the city. .
In this way; Istanbul Metro will be integrated with Yenikapi and passengers will be able to travel to Yenikapi, Taksim, Sisli, Levent and Ayazaga with a reliable, fast and comfortable public transport system.
The integration of the Light Rail System to be built between Kadıköy and Kartal will enable the passengers to travel with a reliable, fast and comfortable public transportation system, and the share of Rail Systems in urban transportation will increase. Most importantly, by connecting Europe and Asia by rail, the high
capacity will be provided to public transportation, historical and cultural environment will be contributed to the protection, the general structure of the Bosphorus will not lead to a change, marine ecological structure will be protected,
With the launch of the Marmaray project, Gebze-Halkalı 2-10 will be carried out once a minute and the capacity to carry 75.000 passengers per hour in one direction will be shortened, Travel times will be shortened, the load of the existing Bosphorus Bridges will be lightened, providing easy, convenient and quick transportation to the business and cultural centers and bringing the city's economic life closer to each other. It will fold.
What measures were taken against the earthquake in the Marmaray Project?
Istanbul is about 20 kilometers from the North Anatolian Fault Line extending from the east to the southwest of the Islands in the Marmara Sea. Therefore, the project area is located in a region that requires the consideration of a major earthquake risk.
It is known that many similar tunnels around the world are exposed to earthquakes similar to the size expected in this region, and are able to survive these earthquakes without major damage. The Kobe Tunnel in Japan and the Bart Tunnel in San Francisco, USA are examples of how robust these tunnels can be built.
In addition to the available data, the Marmaray Project will collect additional information and data from geological, geotechnical, geophysical, hydrographic and meteorological surveys and surveys, and these data will serve as the basis for the design and construction of tunnels to be constructed using the latest and modern civil engineering technologies.
Accordingly, the tunnels within the scope of this project will be designed in such a way as to be able to withstand an earthquake with the highest severity expected in the region.
The most recent experience of the seismic event in 1999 in the Bolu region of Izmit has been solved, and these experiences will form part of the foundations on which the design of the Istanbul Bosphorus Crossing Railway Project is based.
Some of the best national and international experts have participated in the studies and evaluations. the earthquake in Japan and the United States District was built previously in many similar tunnel and therefore especially Japanese and American experts, the specifications must be met in the design of the tunnel for the development of the number of scientists with and expert in Turkey is working in close cooperation.
Turkish scientists and experts work intensively to identify the characteristics of potential seismic events; and based on all the information up to date and historical data collected in Turkey - Bolu Izmit region derived from the events of the year 1999, including the most recent data - has been analyzed and used.
Japanese and American experts assisted in this data analysis study and supported relevant activities; these experts have also included all of their extensive knowledge and experience in the design and construction of seismic and flexible joints in tunnels and other structures and stations within the scope of the specifications to be met by the Contractors.
Large earthquakes can cause serious damage to large infrastructure projects if the effects of such earthquakes are not taken into account in the design scope. Therefore, the most advanced computer-based models to be used in the Marmaray Project and America, the best experts from Japan and Turkey will participate in the design process.
Thus, the team of experts, which forms part of the Avrasyaconsult organization, can be prevented from turning into worst-case conditions (ie a major earthquake in the Marmaray area), to ensure that this event can be prevented from turning into a disaster for people who have gone through tunnels or working in tunnels. will be able to provide support and advice on this issue.
The upper blue part of this map is the Marmara Sea, which is connected to the Black Sea and the central part of the Bosphorus. The North Anatolian Fault will be the center of the next earthquake in the region; this fault line extends in the east / west direction and passes approximately 20 kilometers south of Istanbul.
As can be seen from this map, the southern parts of the Sea of Marmara and Istanbul (upper left corner), is located in one of Turkey's most active earthquake zones. Therefore, tunnels, structures and buildings will be constructed in such a way that no devastating damage and damage will occur in the event of an earthquake.
Will Marmaray harm the cultural heritage?
Göztepe Station is one of many examples of old buildings to be protected.
The history of civilizations living in the past in Istanbul is based on a history of about 8.000 years.
Therefore, the ancient ruins and structures, which are expected to exist under the historic city, have a huge archaeological importance all over the world.
In contrast, during the construction of the Project, it will not be possible to ensure that some historical buildings are not affected; in the same way it is not possible to prevent some deep excavations for new stations.
For this reason, different organizations and organizations involved in major infrastructure projects, such as the Marmaray Project, under this special obligation; buildings and structures, construction works and architectural solutions will be planned and designed in such a way that they will not harm the old buildings and the historical areas under the ground. In this respect, the Project is divided into two separate parts.
The existing section of the improvement of the existing suburban railways (aboveground of the project) will be made on the current route and therefore no deep excavations will be required here. It is expected that only buildings that form part of the existing railway system will be affected by the construction work; where such buildings (including stations) are classified as Historic Buildings, these buildings shall be kept in place, moved to another location or replica copies shall be constructed.
In order to minimize the impacts on the potential underground historical assets, the Marmaray Project planning team acted in cooperation with the relevant institutions and organizations and planned the route of the railway line in the most appropriate way; thus the areas to be affected are minimized. In addition to these, extensive studies have been conducted on the available information on the areas that may be affected and are still ongoing.
There are many old houses of historical value in Istanbul. The Marmaray Project is planned as necessary to keep the houses to be affected by construction works in a very limited number. A protection plan will be prepared for each situation and each house will be kept in place, or moved to another place or a replica copy will be built.
The Council for the Protection of Cultural and Natural Assets reviewed the final plan of the project and expressed its views and comments.
In addition, as required by DLH, the contractor who carried out the excavations commissioned two full-time history experts to monitor all activities during the construction of the excavation works. One of these experts is Ottoman historian and the other is a Byzantine historian. These experts were supported by other experts who participated in the planning process. These historians have ensured the maintenance of relations with the three local Cultural and Natural Heritage Boards and Commissions on Monuments and Archaeological Resources.
Excavation excavations under the supervision of the Istanbul Archeology Museum have been going on since the 2004 and Marmaray construction works are carried out only within the framework of the permits given by the Protection Boards.
Historical artifacts were found, these were reported to the Istanbul Archeology Museum, and the museum officials visited the site in any case and decided on the work to be done to protect the finds.
Anything that can be done under reasonable circumstances to protect important historical and cultural assets in the old city of Istanbul has been planned and planned in this way. specifications provided for Contractors, Contractors DLH related commissions and encouraged to work together with museums and so on cultural heritage assets, Turkey and the people living in all other regions of the world and has provided protection for the benefit of future generations.
There are many old houses of historical value in Istanbul. The Marmaray Project is planned as necessary to keep the houses to be affected by construction works in a very limited number. A protection plan will be prepared for each situation, and each home will be maintained in place, or moved to another location, or a one-to-one copy will be built.
What is Immersed Tube Tunnel?
An Immersed Tunnel consists of several elements produced in a dry dock or a shipyard. These elements are then pulled into the field, immersed into a channel and connected to form the final tunnel. In the picture below, the element is transported to a submerged place with a catamaran placement barge. (Tama River Tunnel in Japan)
The above picture shows the outer steel tube envelopes produced in a shipyard. Then, these tubes are pulled as a ship and transported to a site where the concrete will be filled and completed (in the above picture) [Tunnel of South Osaka Port (along with the railway and highway)] (Japan's Kobe Port Minatojima Tunnel).
Above; Kawasaki Harbor Tunnel in Japan. Right; South Osaka Harbor Tunnel in Japan. Both ends of the elements are temporarily closed with baffle sets; So when the water is released and the pool used for the construction of the elements is filled with water, these elements will float in water. (Photos are from a book published by the Association for Japanese Screening and Reclamation Engineers.)
The length of the immersed tunnel on the seabed of the Bosphorus will be approximately 1.4 kilometers, including the connections between the immersed tunnel and the drilling tunnels. The tunnel will form a vital link in the two-lane railway crossing under the Bosphorus; this tunnel will be located between the district of Eminönü in the European side of Istanbul and the Üsküdar district on the Asian side. Both railway lines will extend within the same binocular tunnel elements and will be separated from each other by a central separation wall.
Over the course of the twentieth century, more than one hundred tunnels were built for road or rail transport around the world. Immersed tunnels were built as floating structures and then submerged in a pre-screened canal and covered with a cover layer. These tunnels must have a sufficient level of effective weight to prevent them from floating again after installation.
Immersed tunnels are formed from a series of tunnel elements that are produced in prefabricated lengths of substantially controllable length; each of these elements is generally of the length 100 m, and at the end of the tube tunnel, these elements are connected under the water to form the final version of the tunnel. Each element is provided with a temporary set of insertion kits at the ends; these sets allow the elements to float when they are dry. The fabrication process is completed in a dry dock, or the elements are lowered to the sea as a vessel and then completed in a floating place near the final assembly.
The immersed tube elements produced and completed in a dry dock or in a shipyard are then drawn into the field; It is immersed in a channel and connected to form the final tunnel. To the left: The element is drawn to a place where the final assembly is to be performed in a busy port. (Osaka South Port Tunnel in Japan). (The photograph was taken from the book published by the Japan Screening and Reclamation Engineers Association.)
The tunnel elements can be successfully pulled over large distances. After the operation of the equipment in Tuzla, these elements shall be fixed to the cranes on the specially built barges to allow the elements to be lowered to a channel prepared in the seabed. These elements will then be immersed in the weight required for the lowering and immersion process.
The immersion of an element is a time-consuming and critical activity. In the upper and right illustrations, the element appears when the element is submerged downwards. This element is controlled horizontally by anchors and cable systems and the cranes on the immersion barges control the vertical position until the element is lowered and fully seated on the foundation. In the picture below, GPS tracking of the position of the element is observed during immersion. (Photos are taken from the book published by the Association for Japanese Screening and Reclamation Engineers.)
The immersed elements will be brought end-to-end with the previous elements; after this, the water in the junction between the connected elements will be discharged. As a result of the water drainage, the water pressure at the other end of the element will tighten the rubber seal so that the seal is waterproof. Temporary support elements will be held in place when the base under the elements is completed. The channel will then be refilled and the required protection layer will be added. After the tube tunnel element has been installed, the connection points of the tunnel tunnel and the tunnel tunnel shall be filled with waterproofing filling materials. Tunnel Boring Machines (CPCs) and drilling operations into the tunnels will be continued until the immersed tunnel is reached.
The top of the tunnel will be closed with backfill to ensure stability and protection. In all three illustrations, backfilling from a self-propelled double-jaw barge by applying the tremi method is shown. (The photographs were taken from the book published by the Japanese Association of Screening and Reclamation Engineers)
There will be two tubes in the submerged tunnel at the bottom of the throat, one for each one-way train navigation.
The elements will be completely buried in the seabed so that after construction the seabed profile will be the same as the seabed profile before the construction started.
One of the advantages of the immersed tube tunnel method is that the cross section of the tunnel can be arranged in the most appropriate way within the specific needs of each tunnel. In this way, you can see the different cross sections used throughout the world in the picture on the right.
Immersed tunnels were constructed as reinforced concrete elements, which had previously been fitted with internal and external reinforced concrete elements, with or without dental steel envelopes. In contrast, since the nineties
In Japan, innovative techniques using non-reinforced but ribbed concrete prepared by sandwiching between inner and outer steel envelopes are applied; these concretes are structurally completely composites. This technique can be implemented with the development of excellent quality fluid and trapped concrete. This method can eliminate the requirements for the processing and production of iron reinforcements and molds, and the problem of collision can be solved by providing sufficient cathodic protection for steel envelopes in the long term.
How to use drilling and other tube tunnel?
The tunnels beneath Istanbul will consist of a mixture of different methods. The red section of the route will be constructed by immersing tunnels and the white sections will be constructed as tunneling machines using tunneling machines (TBM), and the yellow sections will be constructed using the opening / closing technique (C & C) and the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) or other traditional methods. . The figure shows the Tunnel Boring Machines (CPC) with the numbers 1,2,3,4 and 5.
Drilling tunnels drilled into the rock using tunneling machines (CPCs) will be connected to the immersed tunnel. There is a tunnel in all directions and a railway line in each of these tunnels. The tunnels are designed with sufficient distance between them in order to prevent them from affecting each other significantly. In an emergency situation, short connection tunnels have been made at frequent intervals in order to provide parallel tunnel escape.
The tunnels beneath the city will be connected to each other at every 200 meter; so that service personnel can easily switch from one channel to another. Furthermore, in the event of an accident in any of the drilling tunnels, these connections will provide safe recovery means and provide access for rescue personnel.
In tunneling machines (CPCs), the latest 20-30 is widely observed throughout the year. The illustrations show examples of such a modern machine. The diameter of the shield can exceed 15 meters with current techniques.
The operating modes of modern tunneling machines can be quite complex. In the picture, a three-facet machine is used, which is used in Japan to open an oval-shaped tunnel. This technique can be used where station platforms are required to be constructed.
Where the tunnel section has changed, other methods may be applied along with many specialized procedures (New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), drilling-blasting and gallery opening machine). Similar procedures will be used during the excavation of the Sirkeci Station, which will be organized in a large and deep gallery opened under the ground. Two separate stations will be constructed underground by using on-off techniques; these stations will be located in Yenikapı and Üsküdar. Where open-cover tunnels are used, these tunnels will be constructed in a single box section where a central separator wall will be used between the two lines.
In all tunnels and stations, water insulation will be done and ventilation will be established to prevent leaks. Design principles similar to the principles used for underground subway stations will be used for suburban railway stations.
Where cross-link traverse lines or lateral connection lines are required, different tunneling methods can be combined. In this tunnel, TBM technique and NATM technique are used.
How will excavation work be carried out in Marmaray?
Grabbing dredges will be used to make part of the underwater excavation and dredging works for the tunnel channel.
Immersed Tube Tunnel will be placed on the sea floor of Istanbul Strait. For this reason, a channel large enough to contain the structural elements will have to be opened on the seabed; furthermore, this channel will be constructed so that a covering layer and protective layer can be placed on the tunnel.
Underwater excavation and screening of this channel will be carried out from the surface, using heavy underwater excavation and screening equipment. It was calculated that the total amount of soft ground, sand, gravel and rock to be removed should exceed 1,000,000 m3.
The deepest point of the route is located in the Bosphorus and has a depth of about 44 meters. Immersed Tube At least one 2 meter protective layer shall be placed on the tunnel and the cross section of the tubes shall be approximately 9 meters. Thus the working depth of the dredger will be about 58 meters.
There are a limited number of different types of equipment to ensure this is achieved. These works will most likely be used in the grabbing dredger and the towing bucket.
The grabbing dredger is a very heavy vehicle placed on a barge. There are two or more buckets, as can be seen from the name of this vehicle. These buckets are scoops that are opened when the device is lowered down from the barge and suspended and suspended from the barge. Since the buckets are very heavy, they sink to the bottom of the sea. When the bucket is lifted upwards from the bottom of the sea, it closes automatically, so that the tools are moved to the surface and emptied on the barges by means of buckets.
The most powerful shovel dredgers have the capacity to dig around 25 m3 in a single working cycle. The use of grabbing combs is most useful in soft to medium hard materials and cannot be used on hard tools such as sandstone and rock. Grab dredges are one of the oldest types of dredgers; but they are still widely used worldwide for this type of underwater excavation and survey work.
If the contaminated soil is to be scanned, some special rubber seals may be attached to the buckets. These seals will prevent the release of the sludge and the fine particles to the water column during the pull-up of the bucket from the sea bottom, or to keep the amount of particles released at very limited levels.
The advantages of the bucket are that it is very reliable and can perform excavation and screening works at high depths.
The disadvantages are that the depth of the excavation increases dramatically as depth increases, and the flow in the Bosphorus will affect the level of accuracy and overall performance. In addition, excavation and screening cannot be performed on scoops and hard tools.
The Pull Bucket Dredger is a special ship mounted with a plunging type screening and cutting device with a suction pipe on it. While the vessel is on the route, the water mixed with the water is pumped into the ship from the bottom of the sea. Deposits must be deposited in the vessel. In order to fill the vessel at maximum capacity, it should be ensured that the high amount of residual water can flow out of the ship while the ship is moving. When the vessel is full, it goes to the waste disposal area and empties the waste; after this operation, the vessel will be ready for the other operating cycle.
The most powerful Traction Bucket Vessels are capable of picking up about 40,000 tonnes (about 17,000 m3) in a single working cycle and digging and scanning up to a depth of about 70 meters. Traction Bucket Vessels can dig and crawl in soft to medium hard materials.
Advantages of Pull Bucket Dredger; high capacity and mobile system does not rely on anchor systems. The disadvantages are; the lack of accuracy and the excavation and screening of these vessels in the areas close to the shore.
In the terminal connection joints of the submerged tunnel, some rock will have to be excavated and scanned in areas near the shore. Two different ways can be followed in order to perform this process. One of these ways is the implementation of the standard method of underwater drilling and blasting; the other method is the use of a special chiseling device that allows the rock to break apart without blasting. Both methods are slow and costly. If the drilling and blasting method is preferred, some special measures will be required to protect the environment and the surrounding buildings and structures.
Will the Marmaray project harm the environment?
Many studies have been carried out by the universities in order to understand the characteristics of the marine environment in the Bosphorus. Within the framework of these studies, construction works to be carried out will be arranged in a way that will not prevent the migration of fish in the Spring and Autumn seasons.
While evaluating the environmental impact of major infrastructure projects such as the Marmaray Project, the impacts occurring in two different periods as a general practice are evaluated; impacts during the construction process and the effects after the opening of the railway.
The impacts of the Marmaray Project are similar to those of other modern projects in recent years in Europe, Asia and the Americas. In general, it can be said that the effects that occur during the construction process are negative; however, these shortcomings will become completely ineffective soon after the system is put into operation. On the other hand, the impacts that will occur during the rest of the life of the project will be very positive compared to the situation we are in today if nothing is done, ie if the Marmaray Project is not undertaken.
For example, when we compare the situations that would occur if we did not realize the Project and the situation that would arise if we did not, the reduction in air pollution as a result of the Project is estimated to be approximately the following levels:
- In the amount of air pollutant gases (NHMC, CO, NOx, etc.), during the first 25 annual operating period, there will be an annual average reduction of approximately 29,000 ton / year.
- During the first 2 annual operating period in the amount of greenhouse gases (mainly CO25), there will be a decrease of approximately 115,000 tons / year on average annually.
All these types of air pollution have negative effects on the global and regional environment. Non-methane hydrocarbons and carbon oxides contribute positively to general global warming (creating a greenhouse effect and also CO is a highly toxic gas) and is very uncomfortable for people with nitrogen oxides, allergic reactions and asthma.
When it is put into operation, the Project will reduce the negative environmental problems such as noise and dust that have influenced Istanbul by modern and effective techniques to be used. In addition, the Project will make railway transportation more reliable, safe and comfortable. However, in order to achieve these great advantages in terms of the environment, there is initially a provision to be paid; this is the negative impacts that we face during the construction of the Project.
The negative impacts to be experienced during construction in terms of people living in the city and the city are presented below:
Traffic Congestion: In order to build three new deep stations, large construction sites in the heart of Istanbul will have to be occupied. The traffic flow will be diverted in other directions; but at times there will be traffic jams.
During the construction of the third line and the improvement of existing lines, existing commuter rail services will have to be limited and even cut for certain periods. Alternative transport methods such as bus services will be provided to provide services in these affected areas. These services can lead to traffic congestion problems during these periods, as the traffic flow in the affected station areas is diverted in other directions.
Contractors, equipment and materials in large trucks to be moved to the construction site and to be removed from there, they will have to use the highway systems near the deep stations; and these activities will cause overload of the capacity of road systems from time to time.
It will not be possible to completely prevent interruptions; however, the possible negative impacts may be limited by careful planning and the provision of comprehensive information to the public and by obtaining the necessary support from the relevant authorities.
Noise and Vibrations: The works that must be carried out for the Marmaray Project consist of noisy activities. In particular, the work to be done for the construction of deep stations will cause a high level of uninterrupted daily noise during the construction phase.
Underground work will not cause noise in the city under normal circumstances. In contrast, tunneling machines (CPCs) will cause low frequency vibration on the ground around them. This will cause noise in the surrounding buildings and terrains, and this noise may continue uninterruptedly for 24 hours, but such noises will not affect any area for more than a few weeks.
In order to prevent the closure of existing suburban rail services over a long period of time, some work will be carried out during the night. The activities to be carried out within these periods can be expected to be quite noisy. This noise level may occasionally exceed the limit levels acceptable for such work under normal circumstances.
It will not be possible to completely eliminate the disturbances caused by noise, but a wide range of specifications has been envisaged for the measures to be taken by the Contractors in order to limit the noise level as a result of construction activities.
Dust and Sludge: Construction activities cause dust in the areas around the construction sites and sludge and soil accumulation on roads. These conditions will be observed in the Marmaray Project.
Although it is not possible to eliminate these problems altogether, many things can and will be done in order to reduce the effects; watering, for example, roads and coated areas; cleaning of vehicles and roads.
Service Outages: Before starting construction work, all known infrastructure networks will be identified and their locations and directions will be changed as necessary. In contrast, many of the existing infrastructure networks cannot be deployed as they should; and, in some cases, infrastructure lines that are not within the knowledge of anyone. Therefore, it will not be possible to prevent any interruption of service interruptions from time to time in communication systems such as power supply, water supply, sewerage systems and telephone and data cables.
Although it is not possible to completely prevent such interruptions, negative impacts can be limited by careful planning and by providing comprehensive information to the public and by obtaining the necessary support from the relevant authorities.
Some adverse effects will be observed during the construction phase in terms of the people using the marine environment and the sea road in the Bosphorus. The most important of these effects are:
Contaminated Equipments: In the surveys and examinations carried out in the Bosphorus, where the Golden Horn meets the Bosphorus Strait, it is certified that there are contaminated materials at the seabed. The amount of contaminated material that has to be removed and removed is approximately 125,000 m3.
As required by DLH from Contractors, it is necessary to use proven and internationally recognized techniques for the removal of equipment from the sea bottom and for transport to a Closed Waste Removal Facility (CDF). These facilities will consist of an enclosed space, which is typically covered by limited protective equipment on the seabed or surrounded by confined and controlled and clean materials on the terrestrial area, or on a restricted area.
If the correct methods and equipment are used in the relevant work and activities, the pollution problems can be completely eliminated. In addition, the removal of contaminated equipment from a significant part of the seabed area will have a positive impact on the marine environment.
Turbidity: It is necessary to remove at least 1,000,000 m3 soil from the bottom of the Bosphorus so that the opened channel can be prepared in accordance with the immersion tube tunnel. These activities and activities will undoubtedly lead to the formation of natural residues in water and accordingly increase the turbidity. This situation will have negative effects on fish migration in Istanbul Strait.
During the spring, the fish migrate to the north by moving in the deep part of the Istanbul Strait where the flow towards the Black Sea is formed and during the Autumn they migrate southward in the upper layers where the flow towards the Sea of Marmara occurs.
In contrast, since these inverse currents form relatively uninterruptedly and simultaneously, the cloud strip in the water resulting from an increase in turbidity level is expected to be relatively narrow (probably about 100 to 150 meters). As in the case of the Oeresund Immersed Tube Tunnel between Denmark and Sweden, this has also been observed in other similar projects.
If the turbidity band is less than 200 meter, it is unlikely that it will have a significant effect on fish migration. Because the migrating fish will have the opportunity to find and follow the paths where the blur does not increase in the Bosphorus.
It is possible to eliminate these negative effects on fish almost completely. The mitigation measure, which may be applied for this purpose, will only consist of limiting the options of the Contractors regarding the timing of the seabed. Thus, contractors will not be allowed to carry out underwater excavation and seabed surveying in the deep sections of the Bosporus during the spring migration period; Contractors will only be able to carry out survey work in the Autumn migration period, provided the% 50 of the width of the Bosphorus is not exceeded.
A large part of the sea works and activities related to the construction of the submerged tube tunnel are located in the Bosphorus. Most of these activities can be carried out in parallel to normal sea traffic in the Bosphorus of Istanbul; however, there will be some periods in which sea restrictions will be imposed, and in some cases even shorter periods in which traffic will be stopped. The mitigation measure that can be applied will be to work in close cooperation with the Port Authority and other competent institutions, to ensure that all works and activities in the sea are planned in a careful and timely manner. In addition, all possibilities for the availability of modern Ship Traffic Control and Monitoring Systems (VTS) will be investigated and implemented.
Pollution During periods of heavy and intensive work and activities at sea, there will always be a risk of accidents that could lead to pollution problems. Under normal circumstances, these accidents will include a limited amount of oil or gasoline spills in the waterway of the Bosphorus or in the Sea of Marmara.
Such risks cannot be completely eliminated; however, contractors must strictly adhere to internationally proven standards and be prepared to deal with relevant problems to limit or neutralize the environmental impacts of such situations.
How many stations will the Marmaray project be?
Three new stations in the Bosphorus Crossing section of the project will be constructed as deep underground stations. These stations will be designed in detail by the Contractor, who will act in close cooperation with the relevant Competent Authorities, including DLH and Municipalities. All three of these stations will have their main concave underground and only their entrances will be visible from the surface. Yenikapı will be the largest transfer station on the Project.
43.4 on the Asian side, including the 19.6 km on the European side, and the upgrading of existing suburban lines to the 2 km. A total of 36 stations will be renewed and transformed into modern stations. The average distance between stations is planned as 1 - 1,5 km. The number of two lines will be increased to three and the system will be composed of 1 lines, T2, T3 and T3. On the T1 and T2 lines, Suburban (CR) Trains will work and the T3 line will be used by Intercity freight and passenger trains.
With the Kadıköy-Kartal Rail System Project, the Marmaray Project will also be integrated into the Abraham Station, thus transferring passengers between the two systems.
The minimum curve on the line is 300 meter, the maximum vertical line slope outline is provided as% 1.8 to be suitable for the operation of passenger and freight trains. While the project speed is planned as 100 km / h, the average speed to be reached in the enterprise is estimated to be 45 km / h. The platform length of the stations is projected as 10 meters in accordance with the passenger loading and unloading of the metro series consisting of 225 vehicles.