Railroad tracks in Dersim: It was used to provide economic and social communication during the Republic period.
Although one of the many common suggestions of the Kurdish reports prepared since the establishment of the Republic is not pronounced, it may have ensured the permanent settlement of the state in the extremely rugged Kurdish geography: the railway. Although it was apparently built to provide economic and social communication, the railways were actually built for military purposes. in military operations in the east kazanWhen we look at the history of the railways, it can be easily understood that the "successes" that have been announced show parallelism with the progress of the railways to the east, and which law came into existence when it reached its destination. In between the lines of the speeches made on the occasion of reaching the cities, there are signals about the main purpose of this.
Pearls from İnönü
Railways were the most important strategic tool of the republic. When the Shaykh Sait rebellion in 1925 is suppressed, the railways leading to the area are transported to the area with the permission of the French and the rebellion is suppressed in this way. Later on, the insurrections of this rebellion are taken to the vicinity of Mount Ararat and they start a new rebellion here. They also conquered the west of Mount Ararat and ruled for four years. The most probable cause of this rebellion is not being reached. After about two months after the arrival of the railways in Sivas, the rebellion is taken under control and continues to 1932 with single collisions. On the occasion of the arrival of the railways in Sivas, İsmet İnönü summarizes the military significance of these roads in his speech: önem There is no justification for the claim of national existence other than the Turkish nation and Turkish community in this country. This simple truth will be more constant when one arrives at our boundaries, with no certainty that no one will ever hesitate and that no fault will not be effective. Ud (Evening, 1 September 1930)
In the summer of 1934, the applicant made the following statement in his speech in relation to the arrival of the railroads to Elaziz: ın The construction of the Turkish country with iron nets means the riveting and interlocking of the whole nation as a single piece of rock in the economic and political field X. Moreover, when the railway is reached to Elaziz, the Settlement Law is adopted. The 1935 year is also a strategically important year of the republic, because at the end of November of the same year the railways arrived in Diyarbakir. As it is known, Diyarbakir was an important military city. An important amount of air and ground forces were kept in this city.
70 percent of the railways were built in the east of Ankara. Because the western part of Ankara was a flatter area, railways could be built with less cost and these could be done in Ottoman times. But in the east the cost was doubled, sometimes tripled. The routes to which the railways will pass sometimes do not go as they did in the project, and in case of hard rocks while digging, the route had to be changed. The companies that received the tender were constantly at risk of not delivering the work on time. Of course, at the time, tools and tools such as digging were used because there were no construction machines like today. Professor Dr. Yildiz Demiriz 'Demir Yolcular' photos in the book, it shows very clearly. Finally, RayhaberAccording to the Fevzipaşa - Diyarbekir line is 504 km. long. This line has 64 tunnels, 37 stations, 1910 culverts and bridges. An average of 5000 to 18.400 people worked per month. I think this may give an idea for the cost of these lines and the importance attributed to them.
Ethnic engineering tool
A few months before the arrival of the railways in Diyarbakir, negotiations for the Tunceli Law begin. 16 At the CHP party group meeting held in October 1935, the previously agreed law draft is discussed. At this meeting, decisions regarding the legal regulation are taken for the previously planned plan for Dersim. In 7 November 1935, the Mucibe of Esbab is presented. 23 November 1935 opens Fevzi Pasha Diyarbakir railway. Approximately one month after the 25 First Law (December) The Tunceli law is discussed in the parliament at 1935, and the law is used in French archives and is considered Bundan without waiting İlk.
During and after the Dersim Massacre, railways are also used for the dispatch of those who were deported to the west. At this point, another function of the railways emerges: the most advanced and fastest tool used to perform ethnic engineering… As can be seen in the limited number of documents regarding the settlement of Dersimis that emerged later, at which station the exiles that were put on the train from Elazig station were unloaded and where they would be shipped. Soldiers even set up tents around the railways to facilitate transportation on flat places. As in Islahiye in 1937.
While railroads, the public knew that this was a precautionary measure. But he lacked the power to resist it. As a matter of fact, Nuri Dersimi writes in his memoirs of a judge's words to him: sözler The trench lines in the east are made for military purposes. These lines are for the destruction of the Kurdish in the East. When the lines are replenished, you will see that your race is destroyed and expelled in your apartment! The Applicant also confirms this situation and writes: doğr Dersim finally settled the railway:. Therefore, the railways were built for military purposes rather than for economic and social communication, and for easier placement of the people to the west. The adoption of the laws was coincided with the arrival of the railways in important cities and the problems in implementation were eliminated.