The Republic of Turkey State Railways TCDD, or simply, regulating the railway transport in the Republic of Turkey is operating and controlling the government.
In the Ottoman Empire period, railway-operated railways, which were operated by capital owners with more build-operate models, were nationalized with the Law No. 24 issued on 1924 May 506 and structured under the name of Anatolian-Baghdad Railways General Directorate. Later, 31 May 1927 which was issued for the purpose of making the construction and operation of the railways together and giving the possibility of working more extensively, was named as the State Railways and Ports General Administration with the date and 1042 Law.
The budget added up to 1953 years the organization managed as a state administrations, July 29 1953 6186 dated by Law "Republic of Turkey State Railways (TCDD)" under the name State Enterprise was transformed into the public. It has taken the form of “State Economic Enterprise ad with the Decree Law No. 233.
Ottoman period (1856 - 1922)
The first time in the world 1825 in the UK began to enter the railway, the 3 land spread to the Ottoman Empire, the entry into the Ottoman Empire is very early compared to many other big countries.
The adventure of the railroad in the territory of Osmalı starts with the granting of the 211 Km Cairo-Alexandria line. In 1866, the length of the railway line over Ottoman territory is 519 km. The 1 / 4 of this line is located on the Anatolian territory and the remaining 130 km is between Constanta-Tuna and Varna-Ruse.
22 1856 130 is the first railway line in 1857 in Anatolia. The concession was transferred to the, Ottoman Railway to İzmir from Aydın to Aydın, company in 130 in the time of Mustafa Pasha's governor. Thus, the first railway line in Anatolia, the 10 km line, was completed in the period of Sultan Abdülaziz in 1866 with a year-long XNUMX.
Then another British company (SCR and SCP), which is granted concession, completes the 98 km part of the Izmir (Basmane) -Kasaba (Turgutlu) Railway (Izmir-Turgutlu-Afyon and Izmir-Manisa-Bandirma lines) in 1865.
Over time, the influence of British, French and Germans in the Ottoman Empire was granted. France, Northern Greece, Western and Southern Anatolia and Syria; In England, Romania, Western Anatolia, Iraq and the Persian Gulf; Germany, Thrace, Central Anatolia, and Mesopotamia have formed areas of influence.
The Ottoman government is also considering to connect Haydarpaşa to Baghdad, and thus to connect Istanbul with India. The construction of the Haydarpaşa-Izmit line is started by the state with a will in 1871 and the 91 km line is completed in 1873. 8 October 1888 with another edict issued in this section of the construction and operation concession of the Izmit-Ankara part of the Anatolian Ottoman Shimendifer Tribe is given. 15 opens the same company with a concession on February 1893, with the German capital, Eskişehir-Konya and Alayunt-Kütahya. 31 August In 1893, construction started from Eskişehir to Konya and 29 arrived in Konya in July 1896.
1896 km in the 2000 year, the 336 km of the 1888, which is in the XNUMX, is connected to European railways with the completion of XNUMX km of Istanbul-Edirne and Kırklareli-Alpullu section in XNUMX.
1876 1909 33 years until the Ottoman Sultan Sultan II. Abdülhamid expresses the following in his memoirs;
Uv I accelerated the construction of the Anatolian Railways with all my strength. The aim of this road is to connect Mesopotamia and Baghdad to Anatolia and reach the Persian Gulf. This has been achieved through German assistance. Formerly the rotting grain in the fields is now well-established, and our mines are brought to the world market. A good future for Anatolia was prepared. The competition between the great states in the construction of railways within our empire is very strange and doubtful. Although the big states do not want to admit, the importance of these railways is not only economic but also political. Her
Lines for operation in Ottoman period
Anatolian Railways (CFOA), 1023 km normal line. In 1871, it started to operate between Istanbul and Adapazarı as the Ottoman Anatolian Railways. In 1888, Société du Chemin was transferred to Ottoman d'Anatolie in return for the extension of the line to Eskişehir, Konya and Ankara. In 1927, it was merged with the new Turkish government partner Anadolu-Baghdad Railway (CFAB) and terminated and connected to TCDD. İstanbul-İzmit-Bilecik-Eskişehir-Ankara and Eskişehir-Afyonkarahisar-Konya lines.
Baghdad Railway (CFIO), 1600 km normal line. Founded in 1904, Adana-based Ottoman-German capital Chemin de Fer Impérial Ottoman was operated by Baghdad until 1923. The controversy between the French, the British and the Germans is one of the causes of World War I. In 1927, it was merged with the new Turkish government partner Anatolian-Baghdad Railway (CFAB) and terminated and connected to TCDD. It consists of Konya-Adana-Aleppo-Baghdad-Basra line.
İzmir (Alsancak) -Aydın Railway and Branches (ORC), 610 km normal line. It was operated by Ottoman Railway Company established in 1856 in 1935 until purchased by TCDD. This company is the first railway company established in the Ottoman Empire and although it is established in TCDD 1927, it accepts the establishment date of this company as its establishment date.
Izmir (Basmane) -Kasaba (Turgutlu) Railways and Extensions (SCP), 695 km normal line. From 1863 to 1893, the company Smyrne Cassaba & Prolongements was operated from 1893 in 1934 by TCDD and was operated by Société Ottomane du Chemin de fer de Smyrne-Cassaba et Prolongements.
Istanbul-Vienna Railways (CO), 2383 km normal line. Founded in 1869, the Chemins de fer Orientaux company operated the railroads in the Rumelia lands of the Ottoman Empire until 1937. With the line known as Orient Express, it was possible to go by rail until Paris. This line started from Istanbul and included Ottoman cities such as Edirne, Plovdiv, Nis, Thessaloniki, Belgrade and Sarajevo and extended to Vienna.
Hicaz Railway, 1320 km normal line. In 1900, the capital of Damascus-Medina was opened in 1908. During the First World War, the local Arab tribes frequently destroyed the railway and could be operated until 1920. Damascus-Busra-Amman-Ma'an-Aqaba-Tebuk-Hijr-Medina and Busra-Jerusalem lines consisted of two lines.
Damascus - Hama and Extension, narrow and normal line of 498 km.
Jerusalem - Jaffa, 86 km normal line.
Mudanya-Bursa Railway (CFMB), 42 km narrow line. In 1871 1874, which was opened by the Ottoman Empire, the French Chemin de Fer Moudania Brousse company started to operate. In 1932, TCDD bought the line, but because the line was out of line and unprofitable, it closed the line in 1948.
Ankara - Yahsihan, 80 km narrow line.
Adana-Feke, 122 km narrow line.
Mersin-Tarsus-Adana Railway (MTA), 67 km double normal line. It was opened in 1883 by the Turkish-British and French joint venture Mersin-Tarsus-Adana Railway (MTA). It was acquired by German Deutsche Bank at 1886 and was operated by Chemins du Fer Impérial Ottomans de Bagdad (CFIO). In 1906, it was nationalized by the Anatolian-Baghdad Railway Company with a new Turkish government.
The total length of railways built in the Ottoman period was 8.619 km.  However, the 4559 km of these lines remained in the newly established Republican territory. Of these lines, the normal width of 2.282 km and 70 km narrow lines of foreign capital companies, while the normal width of the 2.207 km line of state-owned companies.
Turkish War of Independence (1919 - 1923)
During the War of Independence, the railroads played an important role in winning the War of Independence with the accomplishments of soldiers, weapons and supplies, the transportation of veterans on the fronts and the achievements in the logistics of the war. In this period, General Manager Behiç Erkin was honored with both the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and the Independence Medal for his success in the perfect functioning of the railways.
In this period, railways were nationalized and new lines were formed. 24 In May 1924, the General Directorate of the Anatolian-Baghdad Railways Directorate was established for the nationalization of railways. 31 May 1927 was founded on the General Directorate of State Railways. Thus, the construction and operation of railways started to be carried out together. 1923 km 4559 as of 1940 in the year of the 8637 XNUMX XNUMX km until the year of the work has reached the XNUMX km.
1932 and 1936 prepared in 1. and 2. In the Five Year Industrialization Plans, priority was given to basic industries such as iron and steel, coal and machinery. Railway investments were important in order to transport such mass cargoes in the cheapest and safest way. In these plans, railways are intended to achieve the following objectives:
To reach potential production centers and natural resources.
The railroads that reach Ergani are copper, the iron reaching to Ereğli coal basin, Adana and Çetinkaya lines are called cotton and iron lines.
Establishing relationships between production and consumption centers, ie ports and post-regions.
Harun-Samsun, Irmak-Zonguldak lines reached the railway with 6 to 8. Samsun and Zonguldak lines and the sea connection of the East and Anatolia are reinforced.
Ensuring the spread of economic development at the country level and reaching especially the less developed regions.
1927'da Kayseri, 1930'da Sivas, 1931'de Malatya, 1933'de Niğde, 1934 Eats, 1935 Diyarbakır, 1939'da Erzurum rail network is connected.
1940-1960 is a yol period of stagnation “in terms of railways. Indeed, despite the economic shortages in the period of Inönü, despite the impossibilities, the construction of railway II. It continued until World War II. After the war, it slowed down after 1940. The 1923 km of the 1960 km rail between 3.578-3.208 is completed by 1940. During this period, organizations connecting to the Ministry of Transport in July 22 1953 name of the "Republic of Turkey State Railways (TCDD)" got its name. Its status was turned into an Economic State Organization. In 1955, the first electric line, Sirkeci-Halkalı suburban line was opened.
After the War of Independence, an average of 240 km long railway was built annually in all odds. After 1960 year, only 39 km railway could be built in the year despite the developing technology and financial opportunities.  Former Prime Minister and President Turgut Özal is also an X outdated transportation method ve for railways and ulaşım Rail is the choice of communist countries, because its transportation is centralized. Yol [XNUMX] He said.
As a result, 1960-1997 increased the length of the railroad 11 by the length of years. The shares of investment in transportation sectors are; In 1960 the highway has received 50, 30 shares, while 1985 has been under 10 since 96. road passenger transport share in Turkey 2%, while the share of rail passenger transport is 38%. Due to the fact that the existing infrastructure and operating conditions of the railways were not improved and new corridors could not be opened, the share of passengers in passenger transportation declined by XNUMX in these years.
2000 and post-period
In 2002 has carried out approximately 14 million tons cargo transportation. Freight transport includes not only goods transported domestically but also goods coming from abroad and going to other countries.
When we look at Turkey road-rail freight transport shares of the transport system, road freight transport rate 94%, while the share of rail freight transport is 4%.
TCDD is in a continuous work for both renewing existing lines and adding new lines. In particular, it replaces the existing old rail technology and switches to a new and more up-to-date system of high-speed trains.
TCDD in 2003 began laying high-speed train lines. The first line, the Ankara-Istanbul line, is 533. The Ankara-Eskişehir part of the line consists of 245 km and the journey time is 65 minutes. The trip time between Istanbul (Pendik) and Ankara is 4 hours 5 minutes. Trial expeditions 23 April, 2007, commercial flights began at 13 March, 2009.