Elevator in Rail Systems
In the case of a passenger carriage, almost always passengers underpass or overpass
or go down to get to the water and go up and down
in other words, they must be removed or descended. This
the situation is for both railways on the surface, as well as underground or elevated roads
Applies to. Light rail systems to some extent, as is the outline train or subway
the same may be the case.
When addressing the subject of station design, when the fixed ladder
instead of using the escalators. Again in the same section, less
supply of lifts for passengers with disabilities or difficult walking passengers even at remote stations
it was noted.
In practice, when designing a new rail system, 5 m or
to go up and down the heights with more, at least in the direction of exit, a march
should use stairs. 6 at remote altitudes with less height and m
even, escalators should be provided at the ups and downs.
Development of first elevators
The elevators have been used in various ways since the invention of the wheel. wheels
after the invention, wrap a rope around it and use it as a reel
They must have started. In such a system, the rope can be worn out in time
It is possible to break under. Therefore, such a system for transporting people and livestock
In 1830 and 1840, water in hoisting systems, cranes and lifting platforms
hydraulics. In the last twenty years of the twentieth century
elevators began to spread. This is because the thin steel wires are twisted properly.
the production of high-quality ropes and the fall of the elevator if the rope breaks
is an automatic brake system which prevents it.
After 1950s, hydraulic lifts can be used in some special applications, mainly for passengers with disabilities.
For small elevators running small heights, up and down, to be used again
It was started.
The main disadvantage of the elevators is that the passengers are waiting for the elevator cabin.
groupings, as a group in the elevator exits increasingly high passenger flows
It is not. Another downside is the passengers in case of corruption between the elevator floor
recovery is very difficult and time consuming. The positive side is the handicapped and wheeled
It is the convenience provided to the passengers using the chair.
Development of Escalators
The idea of a doğru walking staircase “was various in this regard towards the end of the nineteenth century.
Jesse Reno, who received patents, was researched by George Wheeler and Charles Seeburger.
The first escalators were based on the Seeburger design and the 1911 in London
Metro station Earl's Court was established.
In the following four years, twenty more escalators were installed. Mid 1920s
while escalators became ordinary vehicles.
One of the first escalators used in the subway.
Between two world wars, many escalators to replace old elevators
was established. Since then the escalators are busy passengers with subway and suburban
High-volume passenger transport capacity vehicles preferred among floors
was used worldwide.
Passenger Flow with Escalators and Lifts
Information on station planning is given in Section 2, where
Let's detail. If the road or street level is at a lower level,
passengers arrive at a fixed and regular rate. Of course, coming from another vehicle
it will be different.
At the peron level, passengers arrive in large groups when they come off the train.
Passengers can ride on lifts and escalators at a finite speed. In the elevator,
if the cabin is at the passenger level, it may be boarding. If the cabin is not available, passengers will accumulate in front of the cabin
Will wait. Therefore, in the design of the station, in front of the elevator and in the escalator
large areas of land must be provided for the passengers waiting at the beginning. Both platform
unobstructed for vertical transport of passengers at the level of the station floor as well as at the station level
sufficiently wide landings. Particularly wide at the peron level
If possible, two alternative access opportunities should be provided to the platform;
thus, if the machine fails or cannot be used temporarily
the other one will be available. In this way multiple access is not too deep
stations can be provided easily, but in tube-shaped deep-level stations, whatever
Although it is vital until the accident, it requires very large investments.
In the descent of escalators, three steps should be placed next to each other.
It is. Thus, even if one of the stairs is out of service,
It is provided. When the passenger flow is in the form of large waves, the escalator
By changing the direction of movement, the carrying capacity can be increased in the desired direction. Triple Stairs
the other two stairs when the escalator needs renovation
will continue to serve.
Elevators should be installed in pairs as much as possible. So someone is out of service
the other will continue to be used. Such a building remains between the floor and the floor
the other cabinet may also allow passengers to be picked up.
An escalator that is out of service has a fixed carrying capacity of one third
continue to serve as a ladder. However, in an elevator that is out of service, the spiral
If you do not count the emergency staircase, the carrying capacity will be reset.
Accessible Flow Rates in Modern Elevators
Perceptions of passengers as slow and inefficient working of deep and large elevators
has. The reason for such a perception is usually to wait for the elevator cabin
It is thick. Another reason for the completion and entry of passengers into the elevator
landing on the floors of the boarding stops. In contrast, escalators are constantly
they offer a zero waiting time for boarding and landing
appear. Not only that, but if the passengers want to go up the escalators
shorten journey times.
Passenger flow rate in the elevators, cabin size, height between floors, movement speed and descent
depending on the time taken in boarding.
For example, a 32 cabin in a medium-sized modern station, 30 in boarding and landing
With seconds of waiting, 1,5 m moves rapidly in seconds. 35 meters of round-trip lift
The journey takes approximately 1,4 minutes. This way working with a double lift
2750 passenger per hour.
The passenger flow capacity of the elevator working with such capacity is the average passenger per minute 46
means. Both elevators carry both up and down passenger capacity in both directions
it will be the same.
Passenger Flow Rate of Escalators
If two people are found in each step of the escalator, theoretically 200 per minute
The maximum transport rate is accessible.
However, research is not possible in practice, even in the busiest crowds.
shows. It is seen that some psychological factors come to the fore in the behaviors of people in the crowd and people do not come too close to each other. Most
extensive testing and observations suggest that passengers are in a hurry when they leave the station.
Even in stressful situations, the highest flow rate to be reached is between 120 and 140 people per minute.
Even at this high rate, the passengers can comfortably and safely at the top of the escalator.
There must be a wide area to land.
The worst possible condition of the escalators in station design
100 passengers are recommended per minute. This means, under normal circumstances,
there will be passengers standing on one side of the escalator, even at the hour; other side
If you want to go on foot will be left to pass.
Design of a modern rail system using escalators and elevators
In the light of the foregoing, the average number of passengers carried by an escalator is
double the average number of passengers carried by the elevator. Perhaps more importantly,
two escalators running from each of the two trains arriving by two minutes
While the 400 can carry passengers up to four side-by-side, it cannot do it.
Escalators move on gears placed at the top and bottom of the ladder
It consists of two continuous chains. The sections of the steps are approximately triangular in shape.
The corners on the sides have one wheel. The upper wheels are connected to the chain; bottom
The viewer wheel is free. A rail system created on the sides of the stairs of the wheels
It is designed to prevent it from going off the rail at critical points.
For all practical purposes, the angle of inclination of the modern escalators is 30 grade.
The escalators used in rail systems are of three basic types:
• Light type
• Semi-light type
• Heavy duty service type.
Lightweight Type Escalators
Lightweight type escalators are often used in department stores and shopping centers.
They are used. The heights are small. Motion engine, to save space, into stairs
It is arranged. All parts are accessed from steps. Therefore, for the maintenance of traffic
hours are selected or taken out of use.
Lightweight type escalators are used in limited places in rail systems. Street ticket
they can be used for landing or exit. The top of the viaduct with an alternative staircase
they are also useful in accessing gateways.
The lifespan of the lightweight type escalators is 15 leri 20 year. All moving parts
section, they can be changed very quickly.
The use of such escalators for access to subways in various cities around the world
in places, it was observed that most of these stairs were out of service. Especially the top of the stairs
In cases where the part is exposed to outdoor conditions, there are frequent faults. This type of walking
rail system design is not suitable for very busy passenger flow
should be considered during.
This type of escalators daily and continuous maintenance of manufacturers also place
it will be very meaningful.
Semi-Light Type Escalators
These machines are more robust than light type escalators and light rail systems
and are suitable for subways. They can be used up to vertical heights of 15 meters. Light
they are more robust than types. The movement mechanism is too big to fit on the step band.
the escalator beam is placed in the cage near the upper gear.
The service life of such escalators is up to 20-25 years.
As in the light type, the semi-light type escalator change, more than the heavy type
It's easy. The ladder is produced in small sections, which are assembled in itself.
It can be installed and removed with very few operations on site.
Heavy Load Type Escalators
Heavy load escalators, such as those in the London Underground,
The ladder is the ladder that carries the burden of people to serious heights or depths.
The step chains and gears of heavy type escalators are much more robust.
Wheel design and other parts are more robust than other types. Lattice beam light types
It is wider and deeper. Movement mechanism outside the beam, upper gear next to a separate
is on the bed plate. The engine assembly is located in a large compartment that can be accessed separately.
While the heights of heavy load escalators are around 30 meters,
In Budapest there is an escalator carrying passengers to the 38 meter height. On the escalator with such a height, the total live load may exceed the 25 tone. This is gear, chain and
too large stress for the engine assembly.
The service life of heavy load type escalators is around 40 year, but some
escalators have been used for more than 60 years. Such old
escalators are difficult and expensive to maintain; modern march
It is not recommended to keep the stairs in service for so long. 40 breakdown after year
the chances of doing so will often be out of service. In this case passenger satisfaction and
adversely affects confidence.
Figure 12.3 shows the dimensions of an escalator in the heavy load type. Given
At least the size of the escalators in the design of the station of these dimensions with additional information
It will give you an idea about what should be separated. Enough space in the planning stage
not observed. Escalator tenders are available as early as possible
Because the standard designs will vary greatly.
Typical escalator sizes (mm)
Heavy Load Type Escalator Dimensions
The following dimensions are the dimensions to be used in the planning phase. Actual dimensions
can be obtained from manufacturer companies.
Height xNUMX up the ladder nose
Distance to the soaring steps 2,0 m
Length of upper machine section 12,0 m
The smallest depth for the machine compartment 2,5 m
Clear digits width between vertical borders 1,0 m
Average width between beam pairs 1,9 m
Minimum distance between escalator axes 2,5 m
The angle of the stairs to the horizontal 30 °
The size of the lightweight type escalators is generally smaller and from manufacturer to manufacturer
Modern Elevator Types
Today there are many types of elevators. In rail system applications,
Two types of lift are seen: rope and hydraulic lifts.
In a roped-type elevator, the passenger compartment is with ropes hanging from a reel or reel
It is suspended. A weight balancing the cab load is also suspended at the other end of the rope. Elevator
with gears and a motor connected to the reel. Rope lift by hydraulic elevator
It can be moved quickly and it can work for any height. The author knows the highest
The rail system elevator application is for 55 meter height.
In the hydraulic lift, the movement is provided by a hydraulic foot or underneath the cab.
The power is supplied by a hydraulic pump and valve system. Hydraulic lift less
costly and takes up less space. Moves more slowly than rope elevator and in practice
Operate up to 17 meter height.
Hydraulic passenger lift next to a pedestrian bridge
Elevator Type Applications
For reasons explained earlier, the crowd is walking in the modern stations for vertical transportation
Using the stairs is better than using the elevator. However, less crowded or city
elevators at remote stations or where physical restrictions exist
For heights exceeding 15 meters, ropes with large cabinets with capacity up to 50 passengers
lift should be used. Passenger flow using doors on two different sides in landing and boarding
It can be increased.
Smaller lifts to be used for passengers with disabilities or mobility restricted
and hydraulic type. Even if they're small, they're wheeled cabins of lifts
chairs and suitcases should be wide enough to enter easily.
In case of a fault in automatic lifts or when an emergency occurs,
there must be a communication link or an alarm to communicate with.
Inside the lift car, passengers are shown
parts. This is the case especially with the lift floor with raised train
It is important in stations where there are no staff and no personnel working.
Security Risks and Human Factor
Risks arising during transport in and around the station with mechanical systems,
people will walk up and down the stairs with their feet
is different from the risks.
These risks should be addressed and minimized. These risks are not one-way
should be noted. Passengers walk unacceptable distances or climb heights
if they are forced, it will increase the chances of normal tripping or falling passengers. This
The situation causes an increased anxiety and stress in elderly and reduced mobility.
Escalators are probably the strongest and most dangerous in passenger stations
fixed equipment. The interface between moving and standing parts is the most problem
exile These include:
• Interval between step edges and vertical screen panels.
• Interval between steps.
• Combs in the upper and lower landing.
• Handle strips.
In addition to jamming the passengers' belongings in the above mentioned ranges,
The most common hazardous events on the stairs are fire, stepping down, overlapping
There are falling and collision of digits / comb.
This type of dangerous events using various sensors in modern escalators
reduced. On every staircase, the ladder could slow down and
there are emergency switches that stop them from being triggered.
Opening of cabin doors between floors in case of danger
there is a loss of passengers and door speed control. In all elevators
speed accelerators or anti-fall sensors are used.
Upper part of passenger elevator
Passenger elevator detail
Inspection and Maintenance
Regular inspection of all escalators and elevators by competent persons and
care must be taken. According to the legislation in force in the UK, lift and
escalators must be inspected at least once a month for each 6. Also gear box and
inspected at least once every five years for critical components such as safety devices
should be applied.
Escalators are not in use during the first hours of station design.
the issue of how to check and maintain it without being released.
Surface drainage system in railways
collecting water and collecting water from the nearest waterway or through local canals
transfers to the system. Some of the rare cases of railroad under rainwater or normal water
level. In such cases, the natural flow of water
When the steering and sufficiently accumulates from there promises to be pumped to an appropriate expense
It is concerned.
Accumulating water in the tunnel in the collection wells accumulating in the collection wells and from there
It is possible to pump.
Water pumps used in rail systems are generally used in other rail system buildings.
they are far away and can be quite difficult to access. These pumps are usually a float
start and stop with the system. The float system is sometimes carried by plants or water
objects can be made inoperable.
In each rail system configuration, water collection wells, water pumps and float
how and at what intervals
It should be noted. Water pump of mechanical parts in elevators and escalators
systems, such as lift and walking in some rail systems
The engineers responsible for the stairs are also responsible for the pumps.
Severe flood events, road circuits and signaling circuits on surface and tunnels
disrupt and damage the road structure. Inspection of water collection wells and water pumps
and due to negligence of their maintenance, the road may be under water, causing trains to be delayed.
Therefore, water accumulation on the road should be prevented.
It is possible for some pump parts to lose their properties over time. Such parts
in the vicinity of the pump or in a place easily accessible to the care staff
must be kept.
In case of a critical failure of a water pump,
use of a second pump which is fed and controlled by a different float system
can be very helpful. Monitoring of remote pumps via an alarm from the control room and water
warnings should be given in case of excessive rises.