International Light Rail Systems Commission of UITP at 1983
üştür Light rail systems; crossover
about, underground, ground level or upgraded
fast-moving modern tramway
is a form of transportation. temelli
1950s and 1960s such as Germany, Switzerland, Belgium
in the countries where the trams are closed collectively; very
many existing systems have been modernized and now
these systems are called ”light rail systems bu.
In many other countries where trams have been removed from the streets,
Totally new systems since the mid-1970s
developed. North America, Asia Pacific region with
This is the case in a few European countries such as England and France.
has been in the way.
As a result, today light rail systems on all continents
There. Nowadays, 50 light rail with over 400 in the country
transportation and tram systems are available. However,
world wide 100 light rail system planning promise
It is concerned.
Why are light rail systems a successful mode of transport?
Due to high investment costs,
It is difficult to improve the right type of transportation in response to the need.
Light rail; per hour and directions to 3.000
ideal transportation for passengers between 11.000 and XNUMX
It is kind. Higher than heavy rail systems with only metro
transportation capacity. High in Latin America
capacity bus systems partially similar capacity
can reach, but in this case more pollution and noise
Speed and regularity
Light rail vehicles thanks to their high performance
fast speed and good service speed.
Light rail systems also include road, intersections and traffic
good design features such as the superiority of crossing in lights;
average good commercial speed (20 to 30 km / h) and short trip
It will bring the time.
Measures taken to reduce downtime in stops
(eg, unrestricted departure, wide doors, sold in the vehicle
tickets) increases speed and regularity, and also
Traffic congestion is not regular transportation and therefore
It is reliable. Due to this reliability,
Intermittent timelines can be edited and thus better
passenger flow can be provided. Light rail, snow or
the ice on the highway affected by challenging meteorological conditions
continue to work.
Comfort, accessibility and ease of use
Good suspension vehicles and well maintained rails,
will ensure a smooth trip. Passenger boarding platform with vehicle
Any type of low-based vehicles, with no spaces between
better access for passengers (restricted)
For people with mobility UITP on transport facilities
see position document.
With pleasant and well-designed stations and stops
dynamic passenger information system (eg service disruption)
also contributes to passenger satisfaction.
Use of light rail systems in the use of special vehicles
more secure. Dedicated road and traffic lights
the advantage of crossing
It decreases. Scientific research in passive safety
inputs (eg, impact and energy absorption movement, passenger
with more safety vehicle design)
results. Careful design of stations and stations
Some may take such as
measures to make them feel insecure
It can be prevented.
Electric traction light rail systems
does not cause emissions.Modern traction equipment,
the reproduction of the braking energy and thus
provides more energy saving.
Light rail, relatively quiet transportation
form and movable noise and vibration, means and rails
can be reduced with good care. Ray Green “(grass-covered) rails
further reducing noise.
Light rail systems, all kinds of urban and suburban environments
Operable: ideally at ground level, but when needed
underground or elevated
or mixed paths). Pedestrian in the city center
Excellent service to serve in
lightweight rail systems, some other cases
also can use railway lines, heavy rail systems
Joint enterprises can be made.
Contribution to the positive image of the city
Light rail systems look aesthetically pleasing and
it gives a positive and strong image to the city. General experiences,
Light rail compared to customers' advanced bus system
it shows more interest in systems. Modern
image promotes the use of public transport. This
experiences in the field of new or improved light rail systems
due to increased number of passengers
it shows. Hence light rail traffic
congestion, parking need and road infrastructure
Reduces the use. Light rail with urban
transportation contributes to the social dimension of the city,
improve the quality of life and make the city more livable
Impact on urban life
Light Rail System projects, transport projects only
they are also city projects.
unlike light rail systems
The rails are permanent and highly visible.
Hence light rail systems in favor of public transport
It is a long-term and permanent political commitment of administrations.
Light rail systems modernize and provide. Non
establishments and provide. This also increases.
Light rail systems, intensive development of towns and cities
promotes the efficiency of cities and towns
increases unnecessary urban spill.
Impact on general transport situation
Light rail systems are quite visible as a type of transport
and easy to understand. Success at this point
Available for public transportation lines of light rail systems
should be designed with good thinking to feed.
Thus, the public transport structure is more visible, integrated,
it will be understandable and consequently user friendly. This
the situation will increase the use of public transport and
as a result of this, the positive effect on transportation distinction
the development of urban centers
development of additive securities, new housing, trade
together with the formation of centers
Light rail systems projects, early commissioning of the project
due to the receipt of the
the benefits will be divided into various stages
they can be planned and implemented.
Future developments, new markets and applications
The development of light rail systems over the last few decades
has shown great progress for some time. Success reasons
as this is the case
It is concerned.
However, light rail systems in their environment
but also the new market and
There are also some trends that make up applications.
The last 15 year is more low-based technology, voltage
cutters control and modular vehicle design concepts wide
is introduced in diameter. In the near future trends
introduction of composite materials, less energy consumption and
measures that provide easier maintenance.
Complementary to vuz classic la light rail systems, guided
new and innovative yenilikçi search ın forms of transport become available
It comes. “A variety of trams going on the tire
types are being tested in France and recently the first line
It was put into operation in Nancy.
Energy storage devices such as batteries or flywheels
dual-mode or hybrid driving systems;
it will allow the current to go beyond the boundary of the rail and the general line.
Lightweight rails for financial purposes
High investment costs of new light rail systems
has often been a deterrent to planning and construction.
New financing techniques such as public-private partnerships,
provide funding for new projects.
Harmonization of the design of light rail vehicles,
result in lower unit costs and life
cycle cost approach to lower operating costs
should be why.
Simpler, more basic in terms of both vehicle and infrastructure
light rail types, light in developing countries
rail systems can be covered in terms of costs
and maktad only bus-based “systems
create alternative. Successful examples of this principle,
the number of passengers is quite high Istanbul, Konya (each
two cities in Turkey) and the system in Tunisia.
Large metropolitan areas of light rail systems long
long enough to make high capacity transportation
no capacity. However, a complementary mode of transport
It can be very convenient.
Railways in suburban areas and suburbs
run on rail tracks and continue on classic light rail systems
ler Tram-trains giden, the city with the city
seamless travel. Special safety
and operational regulations.
Success factors and trends discussed above - all of them
Light rail systems possible to choose and apply
reasons - can be completed with the following elements:
Long-term benefits in a number of cities: in the city center
Make car restriction measures more acceptable
bring more mobility for everyone
social benefits (especially for people with disabilities), cars
prevention / reduction of ownership and use
The benefit of a family to buy a second car
A number of economic reasons. These are: basic parameters
Reduce initial investments by optimizing, available
use (not affected) ray sequences, lower
operating costs - more than buses or trolley buses
staffing with high passenger / driver efficiency ratio,
available rail system, bus or trolleybus routes
re-planning and reassessing roles
opportunity and construction work or component procurement
local industry share probability (competitive in EU countries
under the rules to be met for tenders);
Available public transportation and car on the street
well-planned multiple systems (parking lots)
changes and connections between types of transport,
enhances the attractiveness and overall patronage of all public transport;
Increase in the number of passengers (strategic level) with a certain road width.
Light rail systems; private vehicle in urban environments
reduced dependence on its use
very positive benefits. Year of last 20
the development of light rail systems is quite successful
and there are many reasons why it will continue
subject. However, the minimum number of passengers (> 3000
passenger / hour / direction) to ensure cost effectiveness
when it is below this threshold, it is necessary
or other intermediate modes of transport are more appropriate.
In this case, light rail systems for the next stage
Light rail systems, but not all other bulk in the city
integrates with transport types
applicable. The second criterion for success is light
full speed and reliability of rail systems
is the potential to develop. This is the external divisions
to allocate the allocated route where possible and
traffic lights means priority.
In this case, the authorities and responsibilities of the operators
And beyond. Administrators and decision makers as well
and therefore operators and decision makers
a good partnership is required.
Has a clear urban development strategy
It should be. So the proposed project is longer
will be suitable for possible extensions in term,
Construction of light rail systems, some urban back
it should be seen as an opportunity to implement transformation projects.
Residential, business and public goods along the rail system line
build light rail system to guide development
Instead of the general tax instrument, the necessary start
light rail to provide part of the capital
taking into account the future interest of the systems
designing innovative targeted financial instruments
(verse transport, value kazansuch as )
All types of transport (private vehicle / bulk)
transportation / pedestrian) using mutual benefits, network
and transfer points by developing, chained transport
by focusing on all types of transport
develop transport policies.
Recommendations to employees to promote light rail systems:
All planning and
about the benefits of new infrastructure with construction stages
Construction work plan during the critical construction phase
endeavor to reduce,
Space between pedestrian / platform and vehicle doors
endeavor to ensure that
Manufacturers to reduce noise and vibration
work in close cooperation, which is light rail
influence the prevalence of system projects,
Standard modular with another company / city
Using design or ordering larger vehicle
Reduce the cost of the rail vehicle unit,
Support light rail system and more visible,
integrated, understandable and as a result the user
available bulk transportation to get a friendly structure
Recommendations for manufacturers:
Efforts towards standardization of railway vehicles
follow (eg MARIE project),
Reduce cost per km of light rail systems
new or require a gerektir lighter “infrastructure
train arrays and easier systems development
UITP, the importance of light rail systems home in the future
for sustainable transportation in livable cities
strongly believes in their positive contributions and
recommends further development worldwide.
International Light Rail Systems Commission of UITP at 1983