The world's second subway was built in 1875 in Istanbul

The second subway of the world was built in 1875te in Istanbul
The second subway of the world was built in 1875te in Istanbul

After the London Underground, we made the world's second subway at 1875 but we couldn't get the rest.
One of the most important projects in the history of the Republic Kadıköy-Kartal metro was put into service at the end of a long work. KadıköyAs a resident of Istanbul, we had a pleasant journey away from traffic chaos. Metro is always said as the solution of Istanbul traffic, but it is clear that we have not been able to go much. Whereas in 1863 and he made the first subway in the world after the London Underground was held in Turkey in 1875, the second subway. tunnel between Karakoy and Beyoglu, Istanbul and Turkey's first, and is the world's second subway. You Turkey's foremost historians on the history of the Ottoman transportation Unity Engine according to archival documents "from the Tunnel funicular" he wrote in his book the history of the tunnel.

Tourist trip on subway
1867'de French engineer, Eugene-Henri Gavand had come to Istanbul to travel. While the French engineer visited Istanbul, the two important centers of the city saw that people were constantly traveling between Galata and Beyoğlu. Istanbulites wandered from the steep and neglected High Sidewalk to commute between the two centers. Gavand has found that the 40 thousand people are using this ascent. With a tunnel between Galata and Beyoğlu, thousands of people would be prevented from climbing up and down. Thus, people and goods would be moved comfortably as well as money from this journey.

After making this determination, the French engineer applied to the Ottoman government and explained his proposal. A tunnel would be built, a railroad would be laid inside the tunnel, and the wagons that a fixed steam machine would draw through the cables would carry passengers. For this project there would be no money from the Ottoman treasury. Gavand suggested the build-operate-transfer model. The tunnel 42 would be transferred to the Ottoman administration after an annual operation.

After the project was examined by the Ottoman administration, Xandum was awarded a French engineer for the construction of the tunnel by 10 June 1869. 6 November 1869 was signed by Minister of Public Works Davud Pasha and Concessionaire Henri Gavand. Contracts for the construction of the tunnel were signed.

When Henri Gavand could not find the money he wanted from France, he established a British company and secured the necessary capital. As capital was discovered, the work accelerated, but problems arose during the land expropriations. After the expropriation process was settled, the construction was completed quickly and the tunnel was ready for service at the end of 1874. In November and December, 1874 trial trials were held. Before the tunnel was completed, the British company disabled Gavand and became the sole ruler of the tunnel.

Opening ceremony
The opening ceremony of the tunnel was held at 17 January 1875. Long before the ceremony, people came and gathered in Galata and Beyoğlu. Beyoglu station was decorated inside and outside. The orchestra plays, uniformed officials completed their final preparations at the ceremony.

On behalf of the British company, Baron de Foelekersahbm and General Manager William Albert were present at the ceremony. However, there was no Gavand who played an important role in the construction of the tunnel.

The opening started with the return of Galata from Beyoğlu, where the wagons were accompanied by music. Then the guests were given food in Beyoğlu. After the conversations at the dinner, the guests were disbanded. The next day, from the 18 January 1875, the tunnel was put into operation and put into service.

With the launch of the tunnel, the Istanbulites escaped the uphill of the High Sidewalk. This downhill slope could be easily overcome in just a few minutes with the 1,5. Over time, the tunnel became one of the symbols of Istanbul. Beyoğlu's entertainment life gained a different vitality after the introduction of the tunnel.

The concession of the tunnel was originally of 42, but was later extended to the 75 year. The tunnel was bought by the Belgian company Sofina in 1911 when it was operated by the British company. In 1939, the tunnel was nationalized as a result of the initiatives of Ali Çetinkaya, Acting Minister of Public Works. After making the necessary arrangements, the Ministry left the company to Istanbul Municipality.

The first accident in the tunnel
About seven months after the start of the tunnel, an accident occurred at the 25 August 1875. This accident, the engineer on time with the brakes were lost without loss. Such accidents caused by the breaking of the wagons were encountered several times in the following years. But there was no loss of life. The only accident that resulted in death in the tunnel occurred on 6 July 1943. A control officer was killed in this accident caused by the failure of the belt. Many passengers were injured.

Fitting information about the tunnel
There are many fitting information about the tunnel. Until the research of Vahdettin Engin, these mistakes were repeated in the books written about the tunnel. It is explained in many books that Shaykh al-Islam prohibits people from riding such an underground car, so long as the animals had to be carried in the tunnel for a long time. However, from the first day of opening, people started to ride in the tunnels. Such an urban legend was invented because the animals were transported during the trial. It is not true that the ride to the subway was banned by a fatwa of Şeyhülislâm.

Number of passengers doubled
The public showed an extreme interest in the tunnel. 18 31 14 75 111 in January, 127 thousand people traveled in the tunnel during the day. In February 225 thousand, in April XNUMX thousand passengers moved. The company reduced its ticket prices and the number of passengers in June rose to one thousand.

Millions of francs were spent
The length of the tunnel was 555.80, its diameter was 6.70, its height was 4.90, and the length of the railway passing through it was 626 meter. The total cost of the tunnel is 4.125.554 francs.


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