Here are the railway lines built in Turkey between the years 1923-1950 (Atatürk and İnönü period):
LINES MADE BY THE GOVERNMENT
- Ankara Sivas Line
- Samsun Sivas Thick Line
- Kütahya Balıkesir Line
- Ulukışla Kayseri Line
- Fevzipasa Diyarbakir Line
- Filyos River Line
- Yolçatı Elazig Line
- Afyon Karakuyu and Baladiz-Burdur Line
- Bozanönü Isparta Line
- Sivas Erzurum Line
- Malatya Cetinkaya Line
- Diyarbakir Kurtalan Line
- Elazig Young Line
- Köprüağzi Maras Line
- Pomegranate Antep Carchemish Line
- Filyos Zonguldak Kozlu Line
- Hadimkoy Kurukavak Line
- Selcuk Camlik Variant
- Tavsanli Tuncbilek Line
- Station Malatya Line
- Erzurum Hasankale Line
LINES MADE BY COMPANIES:
- Ilica Palamutluk Line
- Samsun Carsamba Line
LINES PURCHASED FROM FOREIGN
- Anatolia and Mersin Adana Line
- Mudanya Bursa Line
- Samsun Carsamba Line
- Izmir Town and Extension Line
- Izmir Aydin Line
- Orient Railways
- Ilica Palamutluk Line
- Baghdad Railways
LINES FROM RUSSIAN
- Hasankale Sarikamis Border Line
In 1950, 3.579 km of new constructions in Turkey, 3.840 km of which were purchased from foreign companies and 256 km of which were left by Russians. 7.675 km There is a railway.
Here are war-weary demirağ eg with Ataturk's Turkey:
Turkey's railways between 1923-1950
A few years ago, Transport Minister Binali Yildirim recounted his party's railroad policy:
”… Between 1923 and 1946, the length of the railway built in one year was 128 kilometers. Between 1946 and 2003, this rate dropped to 11 kilometers per year. After 2003, the railway construction, which is currently on New Year's Day, reached 107 kilometers. We still haven't reached the figures of the Atatürk period."
The Minister of Transport of the AKP said a few years ago, birkaç We still haven't reached the figures of the Atatürk period lar, and the AKP Prime Minister said a few years later. Turkey with demirağ we weave! "he said. Someone's distorting the facts, but who?
ATATÜRK'S RAILWAYS: NATIONAL IRONS
Atatürk's railway policy is completely anti-imperialist and national. Ataturk's Turkey has nationalized buying railroads that constructed and operated at higher concession fee and with the unfathomable privileges with the Ottoman Empire territories of the imperialist European countries such as demirağ with knitting before the Ottoman Empire exploit England-France-Germany. Later, he built extremely functional railways, especially in the east-west, north-south, connecting the Eastern provinces to the center, to each other and to the ports. Moreover, the young Republic, these railways, not by external borrowing, but with their own facilities. In short, in the War of Independence, Atatürk buried imperialism on the Anatolian plateau, and immediately after the War of Independence, instead of the railroads that served the interests of the European capitalist companies and foreigners, Atatürk built the railways that were built and operated by the Turkish people and served the interests of the Turkish nation.
So Ataturk's Turkey not only with demirağ eg "national demirağ" were such. Atatürk's railways are in the service of the Turkish nation, not imperialism. The length of railroad Atatürk has laid more attention to the function of these railways!
Trains of the Republic
If you ask the head of the enemy of Atatürk, aya II. ”The remaining 4000 is a few kilometers from the railway üs by Abdülhamit. It My dear! What is the railway of Atatürk, the Republic? The Ottoman Empire had done more!! Let's memorize the memorization of such ”roteists Hazır:
RAILWAYS OF THE OTTOMAN
All of the Ottoman railways were built and operated by Britain-France and Germany, except in the Indian Railroad. For the sake of their own national interests, the imperialist countries built railways in the Ottoman lands and exploited the Ottoman Empire.
Here are a few examples:
1. İzmir-Aydın Railway Concession Granted to the British:
Built between 1857-1866, İzmir-Aydın railway is a remarkable example in terms of how British imperialism shows in a planned and programmed way through the railway. According to the agreement, the goods required for the construction of the railway can be put into the country without payment of customs duty, state-owned lands, mines and forests can be used free of charge during the construction of the railway and after the opening of the railway, the company will have the right to operate the mines within the area of 45 km at the edge of the line with very little tax. . The Ottoman State provided a mileage guarantee to the company. According to the agreement; 70 first part of 1860 km of railways will be completed in September. On the other hand, after the first part of the railway, the Ottoman government will guarantee a profit of up to 50 of the company capital every year for 6 years, and will agree to complete it if the profit falls below this rate. In addition to all these privileges, the Ottoman government pledged not to interfere with the management of the company and to prevent the establishment of companies that could compete with Aydın railway. Apparently, the Ottoman government said to the British, Ege Come, exploit the Aegean! Gör
The main reason why Britain built a railway between Izmir and Aydin is that the region is under the control of British merchants. After the 1838 Baltalimanı Trade Agreement, traders waving their arms in Anatolia, 1866'dan then the Ottoman Empire, the fertile soil of the Aegean region began to farm to buy land. In 1866, as a result of the British pressure, foreigners were given the right to own property. Accordingly, in 1868 one third of the fertile land near Izmir has become the deed of the British. In 1878 this rate increased to% 41. With the arrival of the British, mechanization in agriculture began in the region. In the regions where the railroad passes, instead of traditional products, industrial plants have begun to be grown. It was not the Turkish producers and traders who benefited from this development provided by the İzmir-Aydın railways, but British producers and traders.
Izmir-Aydin railway, the British railway company and the British concession to the British state has brought. Indeed, the UK, 43% of all investments made in Turkey, including external debt between 1864-1913 years, "Izmir-Aydin Railway Company" has taken back through.
In the Aegean region, the British built railways made it easier for British imperialism to invade Anatolia in the future. Considering the area where the lines are spread, the occupation armies that will be in İzmir will be able to reach to Marmara and Istanbul easily. For this reason, the lines were shifted to the inner parts towards the east and the Alaşehir-Afyon line was purchased for the line to come out of the British concession.
2. Anatolian Railway Concession to Germans:
With an agreement signed at 1888, Deutsche Bank purchased the 6 km-long Haydarpaşa-İzmit line, which was previously commissioned with a payment of 91 million francs. It has also obtained licenses for the construction of Bursa and Kütahya connected lines. According to the Haydarpasa-Izmit-Ankara railway concession agreement, the German company will be able to buy the land passing by the railway in accordance with the law of expropriation, if the land is owned by the state, it will be given to the company free of charge. The company will be able to use stone, sand and brick kilns in five-kilometer piece of land on both sides of the line in the places where the railway passes, until the end of the construction. No customs duty shall be levied on the equipment, lumber, coal and other materials to be brought both inside and outside the Ottoman Empire for the construction of the railway. No tax will be required from the bonds issued by the Company. The company will be able to benefit from state forests free of charge. Maintenance and repair works of the railway will be carried out by the company. In addition, officials to work on the railroad is determined by the Ottoman Government-fes-wear is required to wear. The company will be able to search and operate mines within 20 kilometers of each side of the railway. During the construction of the railway, the company will be able to excavate old artifacts without a license and lay a telegraphy along the railroad. Ottoman Empire, the duration of the 99 year Haydarpasa-Izmit line for the km at the company. per 10.300, the 15.000 Frank guarantee for the Izmit-Ankara line and in return, Ankara, Izmir, Kütahya and Ertugrul provinces showed the fate of the province and they agreed to be protected in the Fund.
In the meantime, Deutsche Bank requested privileges for railroading between Eskişehir-Konya and Ankara-Kayseri. In 1893, the concession of the Eskişehir-Konya line was given to the-Anatolian Railway Company X. According to the agreement, the lands required for the railway will be given free of charge to the company, the company will be able to open sand and stone quarries and operate them during the construction period. No tax will be levied on the shares and bonds to be issued until the income of the lines to be increased to the level of the security of the income of the lines that will not pay the customs tax, Haydarpaşa-Ankara line's income is the second order for the bonds to be purchased externally for the construction of two lines (Haydarpaşa-Ankara, Eskişehir-Konya). the state shall pay the same amount as the 50 of the revenue of the lines within five years prior to the completion of the thirty years of the privilege period. The company will have the authority to sell, on both sides of the company line 10.000kşer km. will be able to search for mines in the area and operate the mines to be found, to provide wood, timber from the surrounding forests, to establish quay, pier, store, warehouse and similar facilities where necessary, but to leave them to the state after the expiration of their privileges, from the incomes during the period of operation of these facilities% 20 state% 75 will receive shares, annual 25 for Ankara-Kayseri line, Eskişehir-Konya line will be given annually 775 Ottoman Gold Pound per kilometer profit, and the fountains that will be collected from the railroads passing through the railroad are sold by one of the administration of Düyun-u Umumiye. It will be stored. For this line of 604 km of the Ottoman Empire, 444 Frank has guaranteed a total mileage. For the guarantee of this line of concession period 15.000 years, the tithe of Trabzon and Gümüşhane was responded. The line was completed at 99. The construction of the Ankara-Kayseri railway could not be started due to the opposition of Russia.
3. Railways of Russia
19. and 20. Russia, like England, France and Germany, has imperialist plans for the Ottoman Empire. The Russian railway, which knows very well how the railway is a weapon, opposes it by thinking that passing it to the east of Ankara will harm it in many ways in the future. In the 1900 years, 9% of the Ottoman Empire trade is done with Russia. In these years, Istanbul receives 65 thousand tons of flour annually from Russia. As soon as the railway reached Konya, Russia ended this trade. Russia is right to worry. As a matter of fact, wheat imported from Anatolia by rail from 1901 has met more than two thirds of the consumption in Istanbul. Therefore, Istanbul, Russia and Bulgaria began to take grain. Russia opposed the military in terms of extending the railway to the eastern regions in the Ottoman Empire. The Russians were afraid that the right railways would be hit by their historical ambitions. In particular, the Baghdad line - according to the first plan - very close to the Eastern Anatolia has opposed to pass. The inadequacy of the transportation facilities of the Ottomans comes to Russia's military and commercial affairs.
4. Baghdad Railway Concession to the Germans:
II. Abdülhamit, 1899'de from Konya to Baghdad and Basra to extend the concession of the line is a very high km. German Deutsche Bank with guarantee. After the final concession agreement was signed in 1902, Sac Anatolian Railway Company Mus 99 started from Konya for years and Karaman, Eregli, Adana, Hamidiye, Kilis Tel Abyss, Nusaybin, Mosul, Tikrit, Saciye, Baghdad, Karbala, Mecet Zubeyr from Basra. and the concessions of main and side lines extending to the Gulf of Diyarbakır, Harput, Maraş, Birecek and some other side lines extending to Mardin. The company, 16.500 Frank km. began to work with the guarantee. However, when the money was insufficient, work was incomplete. An additional contract was signed with 1903 on the 1902. According to this agreement, the company will be able to use the stone and sand quarries where the line passes and can make land expropriation. According to the other conditions of the privilege - as in 1889 - the company can operate the mines in an area of 20ındaner a kilometer on both sides of the line, to make archaeological excavation without license, to benefit from the state forests free of charge, from the inside and outside of the Ottoman State to the railway equipment, machinery, locomotive, For wagons and other materials, and for the coal to be imported from outside, no customs will pay until the 15.000 comes to Frank. In addition, the Ottoman Government guaranteed the Company 4.500 Frank km for every kilometer to be opened. When the revenues did not find this figure, the government agreed to close the gap. In addition, the Government has agreed to pay 350.000 Frank to the Company with installments of thirty years in order to be able to make Express flights to the Persian Gulf. The payment of this money would begin after the railway reached Aleppo. In addition to these privileges, the company is able to open brick quarries along the line, establish power plants in order to provide the necessary electricity for railway and its subsidiaries, mek To be able to run ferries between Istanbul and Haydarpaşa in order to put direct sleepers between Europe and Asia at the same time ı, Haydarpaşa and Basra. as well as the ability to do modem repositories. In addition to these, privileges were granted to the establishment of ports and other facilities at the Baghdad, Basra and Persian Gulf terminals. The Company has also acquired the right to operate a ship in the Tigris, Euphrates and Şattülerab. According to the agreement, the guarantee for 200 Frank for the first part of 11.000 km in the Gulf of Iran-Iran bay was extended to 15.500 Frank. In response to this very high guarantee, the Ottoman Empire showed the echoes of Konya, Aleppo and Urfa provinces.
According to the Privilege Agreement; Although it is mentioned about the establishment of a eli Baghdad Railway Company-i Şahane-i Osmaniyesi ”, this company has no dat Ottomanist dat character except it is the only ından Ottoman” in its name. II. Abdülhamit in mortgaged his empire ar in Earle's words with this privilege given to the German railway company. To speak of the “greatness az of the Ottoman Empire, which became a colony of German imperialism with these railway concessions, is simply a tragic-comic situation.
From the 1880s, the railways, which were built by Britain and France and then by the Ottoman Empire in Germany, led to the imperialist exploitation of the borrower and the economically collapsed Ottoman Empire. Orhan has set, "Imperialism in Turkey Entry" in his book of British imperialism; Murat Özyüksel, in his book sömür Anatolia and Baghdad Railways in the Development Process of Ottoman-German Relations ”, revealed all the documents and information about how German imperialism exploited the Ottoman Empire by rail.
* The Ottoman railway works, which were as slow as the 1880s, accelerated after the establishment of the General Directorate of Public Administration. Because the imperialist Europe, which seized all the underground riches of the Ottoman bankrupt, wanted to seize these riches as soon as possible by rail. The General Directorate of General Directorate of General Directorate of Turkish Government has taken over the taxes given as collateral for rail concessions and transferred these revenues to foreign companies with privileges.
* All of the Ottoman railways were built by foreigners - except for the libertarian railway.
* Foreign companies in the Ottoman Empire, the largest investment in the 1890-1914 railways. Because most railways have earned.
* Imperialist European countries have created railroads in the Ottoman Empire. The first railway lines built in the Ottoman Empire were built in the Aegean, Mesopotamia, Büyük and Küçük Menderes and Çukurova, the most productive agricultural industrial products. The imperialist countries wanted to transfer these raw materials quickly and intensively to the European industry with these railways they built.
* The Ottoman State guaranteed the profits of foreign companies engaged in railroads with the so-called garanti mileage guarantee * system. If the railway companies made profits under the guaranteed profit, the government paid the difference. Ottoman, to pay the difference to be paid for the income of one or several provinces. These incomes are taxes that are not under the control of the public administration. However, because foreign companies did not trust the Ottoman Empire, they imposed the taxes under the guarantee on the General Administration.
* According to the railway concessions, the state land to which the line will pass is transferred to the company that will make the railway free of charge. The company has been able to use state forests and stone quarries free of charge. Again, the materials required for the construction, maintenance and operation of the railway have been imported without duty. The operating rights of all mines, including petroleum, sometimes within the 40, sometimes in the 45 kilometer strips at the edges of the railroad, have been given to the company that makes the railway. In addition, concession companies will be able to excavate the old artifacts without making a license during the construction of the railway and to lay telegraphy along the railroad.
* With every concession agreement that allows European companies, the Ottoman Government has left a part of its nationalities to foreigners' influence areas.
* The railroads to be built in the Ottoman Empire were not against the interests of the imperialist countries that built the railways.
* From the center to the railroad, starting from Istanbul, passing through Anatolia, strengthening the Ottoman State was avoided and the railways were started from the Mediterranean coast, facilitating the sharing of the state.
* In order to build a railway, the Ottoman Government either provided a concession in return for a debt or met a new request for a concession when it requested a loan. For example, Germany, which wanted to obtain the Baghdad Railway concession, lent 7 sterling to the Ottoman Empire at a rate of% 200.000 without signing a pre-contract. In the 1910, the Germans lending 4 million gold to the Ottoman Empire with 11 rates, in turn, forced the Ottoman Empire to sign an additional contract for the Baghdad Railway in 11 March 1911.
* The railways of the Ottoman Empire benefited not the Muslim Turks, but the British, the French, the Germans and the Russians.
* Although the railways, which the imperialist countries and their capitalist companies built and operated in the Ottoman Empire, seemed to be a civilization activity at first sight, the importation of the necessary materials for the construction and operation of the railways from Europe without any customs payment, Ottoman railways have become a very profitable investment tool for Europeans and have led to the exploitation of the country. The linking of rail investments to such profitable and robust assurances has led the foreign railway companies to lay the lines even in a meandering manner, sometimes on a flat land, in order to make more profits.
* The bankruptcy of the Ottoman Empire, which was confiscated as inin receivable “to the revenues of all underground and aboveground riches with the Duyun-u Umumiye Yönetimi, caused much loss from the snow. It is true that the agricultural income and trade increased in the Ottoman Empire by railways, but the proceeds have always gone to foreign countries. In addition, the railroads built for imperialist purposes are independent from each other and thus far from responding to the military needs of the Ottoman Empire.
I think it is now better understood why Atatürk nationalized the remaining railroads of the Ottoman Empire and what his “national onun and ği independent ileşt railroad policy meant.
As is known from Turkey after 1946 rail against the US influence and control processes in the revolution was directed almost entirely giving up the highway. then Ottoman imperialism exploiting the once demirağ Turkey has decided to exploit the tires.
Ah Mustafa Kemal Ah! Uz We miss you very much Ah too!
Note: “AKL-I KEMAL - Atatürk's Smart Projects I, which will be released in October 2012, will be presented in detail in 3. Volume, can be found in my book.
1) Sinan Meydan, Republic History Lies, 2. Book, İnkılap Bookstore, Istanbul, 2010
2) İsmail Yıldırım, Railways in the Republican Period, (1923-1950), Atatürk Research Center, Ankara, 2001; Our Railways, TCDD, the Republic of Turkey State Railways, Railway Magazine Publications, Ankara, 1958.