Since the beginning of the 20th century, with the industrialization in the cities and the related population increases, the demand for travel between the residence and the workplace has arisen, and solutions based on technological developments have been introduced in the process to meet this demand. In the beginning, the means of transportation pulled by animals were gradually replaced by steam powered vehicles, then electric transportation vehicles and today's motor vehicles powered by fossil fuels. Despite their separate structural appearances, the common aspects of all these transportation vehicles are; They are included in the urban transportation event and are for public transportation purposes.
The types of transportation vehicles as well as the types of enterprises were also important, and the transportation services, nationalization and social state policies, which were carried out by private enterprises in the past, were carried out by 1. After the World War I, it became a public service because of its influence and after the 1980, privatization was highlighted for the transportation sector as in all public services.
19. From the second half of the 19th century onwards, important turning points of Istanbul's urban transportation services are seen as follows:
- The first equestrian tram was run in 1871.
- Tunnel, which unites Galata and Beyoğlu in 1875, started its service.
- The first bus was put into service in 1926.
- In 1939, transportation services were expropriated with the law numbered 3645 and connected to the newly established IETT General Directorate.
- In 1963, trolleybuses started to work.
- Trams were withdrawn from service in Europe in 1961 and on the Anatolian Side in 1966.
- In 1991, the Tram was operated again in the pedestrian zone of Beyoğlu.
Urban transport in Istanbul has been the subject of a very messy issue in various sources, but a systematic (systematic) library about transportation has not been established. In particular, urban transportation and IETT's history of Istanbul has not been transformed into a neat and satisfying source, and has not been published.
However; this study, which has been updated and enriched by combining private or public transportation literature so far; 127 is our main wish to provide regular information about the history of Istanbul transportation services carried out since the year and to be the source of original studies on the subject to be carried out after that.
In a cultural capital such as Istanbul, such works enable the city to meet the history of the city and to catch and follow the line that reinforces the historical consciousness. The truth of the city is structured with the consciousness of the people who have a deep understanding of it. One of the ways to become a citizen of this city is the monographs, institutions and business history, etc.
This study, which covers the Istanbul history of the Tram Operator, will be particularly meaningful to many people over the age of forty. Trams will once again flow through the ragged memories of many, their drums whistling, with their pile of fringe passengers. Perhaps nothing in Istanbul is as integrated with the city and people as the trams. We pay a debt of gratitude. Once again, but not for the last time, we salute the trams that we operated from 1939 to 1966.
As mentioned above, the study is a compilation as rich as possible, and hence the sources are quoted undesirably considering the future benefits. Particularly the unique work of Mr. Çelik Gülersoy, who has set his heart in Istanbul, Tramway Istanbul (1992) has been the most used resource with its richness. We hope that you will understand us as the subject is tram.
In addition, we would like to thank to Mr. Ergün Arpaçay for his unrivaled love of Trolley in Istanbul with Milliyet Newspaper (1992) and to Mr. Onur Orhan for his unrivaled transportation history, to the officer and manager for his trolley workers and to the manager and all the employees. no limit.
What is Tram?
Tram; It is a transport system on rails in the city, which initially consists of animal power and then electrical power vehicles (tow or motris wagons). In this dry, scientific definition, 150 in Istanbul enters a long history full of memories and associations of years.
First Trams in the World
The first example of the tram, which was the most superior land transportation vehicle of its period, horse-drawn trams were applied in the USA (New York) in 1842 as the project of a French engineer named Loubant. Loubant is a French engineer who found the tram. Inspired by horse wagons pulling ore in the mines, M. Loubant went to America when he could not have the horse-drawn tram that he designed his project accepted in his own country and did not adopt other European countries. And as mentioned above, Loubant's tram project has been implemented on the streets of New York. After three years; France, the country of Loubant, accepted the horse-drawn tram, and horse-drawn trams began to be seen on the streets of Paris since 1845. Later, the rival country, England's capital, London, showed great interest in horse-drawn trams in 1860 and established a tram business.
Electric trams were replaced by electric trolleys when electricity was introduced in time. 1881 began working in Berlin (Germany), 1883 in London (UK) and 1889 in Boston (USA).
ATLI TRAMS IN ISTANBUL
First Tram in the Ottoman Capital Until the 1860s, transportation in the Ottoman capital; an Istanbul at sea
On the other hand, with the boats of the invention, and on the land, they were carried out by walking and horses, and later by the wood and ornamented cars of the ox and horses. Moving in Istanbul these vehicles 19. century was far from meeting the need.
The trams, which were first operated in Istanbul within the boundaries of the Ottoman Empire (called omnibus at that time), were later established in the other major cities of the Empire and operated in Thessaloniki, Damascus, Baghdad, Izmir and Konya, respectively.
Establishment of the Company in Istanbul
The first contract for the establishment of the horse-drawn tram company "On the Tramway Facility and Construction in Dersaadet" was drawn up on 30 August 1869, during the reign of Sultan Abdulaziz. The interesting thing is that there is no company yet at the contract stage. According to the formula found, Karapano Efendi will sign the contract with the Minister of Public Works of the time, Nazir Bey, on behalf of a company to be established before the company is established; If the company is not established within a certain time, the contract will be void; but on the other hand, this contract signed by the Deputy Nafia Deputy will be approved by both the State Council and the Deputies Committee (a commitment in favor of the third party).
In accordance with this contract, for the laying of railroads and carriages for the transportation of people and goods in the streets of Istanbul, Kumpanyaya (Dersaadet Tramway Company) was authorized by Xanthi Karapano Efendi for the 40 year.
Company-i Umumiye-i Osmaniye (Societe Generale Ottomane), Bank-ı Osmani (Ottoman Bank) and Monsieur Komondo and Hristaki Zoğrafos Efendi, and the “Dersaadet Tramway Company” founded and started to operate in the same year (1869), of which Monsieur Zarifi and Konstantin Karafasto Efendi were also the founders. Among the founders of the company, which was established and started operating after the contract, besides the Ottoman bank, R. Edwards (an English settled in Istanbul), G. Casanova Ralli (Banker), DG Fernandey (Banker), R. Viterbe (Merchant-Company Manager), Demetrios Raspalli ( The company's capital (from the Greek community) was 20 gold Lira, out of 20,000 shares worth 400,000 gold Lira (Ottoman Lira). The operation permit was given by Mehmet Kabuli Bey, who was the Minister of Commerce and Agriculture of the time on behalf of the Ottoman Empire and was acting as the Minister of Public Works.
Launch of the first tram in Istanbul, 27 year after the first tram in the world, 3 September 1869'da took place. The Ottoman state was the fourth country in equestrian tram management.
First Mounted Tramways, First Contract (1869)
With an additional document to the contract, the routes to be operated by the Dersaadet Tramway Company and the 4 lines to be opened were determined. These;
- Azapkapi- Galata- Findikli-Kabataş- Ortakoy
- Eminönü-Bab-ı Ali-Soğukçeşme- Divanyolu- Aksaray Yusuf Pasha
- Aksaray- Samatya- Yedikule
- Aksaray- Topkapı are its lines.
Starting from the date of the contract, the first and second lines were expected to be completed in 2 and the third and fourth lines in 4 years. The work for the construction of a horse-drawn tramway took two years. Karapano's company was in fact a Belgian company despite the shares of some local organizations.
The company will go to an agreement for the land and buildings that will go to the road or part of which will be cut, in case of agreement on the price; In cases where the owner did not accept the agreement despite the proposed current value, the state would intervene and make expropriation. It was a rule that the company personnel should be Ottoman, but the open door was left for the key personnel and top managers to be foreigners. Responsibility rule was introduced for accidents caused by the fault of the company.
Şehremaneti (Municipality) would supervise the operation, in particular the road network, but the company would pay the costs. For this purpose, the 100 Ottoman Gold was given an advance. The company encountered various problems when it started laying the tracks. The construction of roads, the introduction of vehicles from abroad and other preparations took 2 years. The first tram was put into service at 1871. 430 pieces were purchased, some were brought from outside. Until then, the streets and streets of Istanbul were paved with cobblestone. This made it difficult to install the rails quickly. For this reason, upon the imposition of İstanbul Şehremini Servet Pasha, an article was put on the first contract. Accordingly, the company; It would take the construction and repair of the pavements while laying the tram rails on the roads opened by Şehremaneti. Thus, the main streets of the city, old and crooked cobblestone pavements, such as the first lines, Tophane-Beşiktaş, were completely removed and covered with paving stones. In particular, the road from the bridge to the Bab-i Ali (government road), the road from Azapkapısı to Tophane (Müşirliğe), the curb edges of the hard border stone, was laid with cut stone.
According to the first contract; separate wagons were envisaged for women, while mixed cars adopted separate sections with curtains. The passenger would be able to carry free goods until 10 okkaya (1 Okka = 1283 gr) and pay the higher price. At least 20 stops will be made for the passenger and one stop at each stop. Apart from the stops, passenger loading and unloading at each desired location was mandatory. This rule was removed with electric trams (1911). The service starts with the sunrise (Tülu-u Şems) and ends at 24 at night. Study tariffs in newspapers and stops; It would be announced in Turkish, Greek, Armenian and Jewish languages. At the end of the concession period, the enterprise would be transferred to the state and the 20 would lose the Company's right for the day-out line.
First of all, three lines of rail were installed and opened for operation.
- Galata - Tophane - Besiktas - Ortakoy
- Eminönü -Sirkeci - Divanyolu - Beyazit - Aksaray - Topkapi
- Aksaray - Samatya - Yedikule
Atlı Tramway Management
Apart from the wealthy owners who had a horse-drawn car in Istanbul at that time, the residents of İstanbul were walking on their way. For this reason, the use of the trams drawn by the horses in the 1871 in the above-mentioned routes attracted great interest.
In the beginning, passengers were getting down and going where they wanted, but because the trams stopped in the places where each passenger wanted, it was very time-consuming to place certain her compulsory bin and de discretionary ist stops at certain locations along the route. Cars were forced to stop at mandatory stops. In the optional stops, there were cars when the passengers were going to land at the stop. Initially, these trams were operated on a single line, in order to avoid confrontation in certain places. The previous tram crossed this line to the side and waited for the tram on the opposite side, and then he could go back and forth after the passing. Passengers made very long wait on the passage of the scissors and the lines were transformed into even lines and the departure routes were separated. However, where the road width does not allow (for example, the way to Haseki Hospital), there is only one line. The horse-drawn tramcar wagons were brought from Belgium, while the large ferrules towing vehicles were brought from Hungary. At the beginning of the slope, the horses were changed in small stables and the speed was not reduced.
Unfortunately, Istanbul was not on the same level as most other European cities. Since the Azapkapısı-Ortaköy (later Bebek) line was straight, the horses were not having any difficulty. For this reason, double-decker wagons, like the omnibuses in England, could be put into operation on this line at the very first opening. Especially in summer, traveling on the open top floor was very enjoyable. But on other tram lines, the road was bumpy. The horses had extreme difficulty pulling the heavy wagons. Depending on the steepness of the slope, the number of horses was increased to 2 or even 4.
There were three important officers on these horse-drawn trams. They were attenders, ticket holders, and wailing. Vatman was the driver, and the guardian was the officer who was chosen from the wind people who generally ran well and ran in front of the tram, occasionally stealing the pipes, shouting "farewell", warning the public and leading the tram. The warriors were mostly chosen from among the pumpers and bullies. They were dressed in boots, trousers, long jackets and fezes. Varda sözcüIt was a word formed by the corruption of the Italian guarda, meaning "Get out, give way, dodge". The warriors had to run faster than the horses.
Over time, the varda-makers were liquidated due to lack of resources, and the rattles and bells worn on the necks of the horses met the duty of the varda-makers. The driver was called a stag. The stag with a long whip in his hand would crack his whip under the ear of the horse in the front row, and call out "hada". It is mentioned that many molded fez were flying with these whips, and even a woman who lost one of her eyes because of this. Tram cars were divided into summer and winter. Winter cars were closed. Passengers used to travel by sitting side by side on opposite benches that stretched across the windows. The summer cars had open sides, and their seats were like school desks. There were no doors and no passages in the middle of the wagons. It was used to get on and off the steps running along both sides. Ticket holders used to go around these steps and cut tickets. Initially, special cars were allocated for female passengers. Male passengers and female passengers could not get in the same car. Women used to ride in special cars reserved for them on each line. However, it was seen that this practice was both very costly and caused disruptions in voyages. As mentioned before, the trams for ladies were abandoned and a ladies section was placed in front of all cars, separated by a red curtain.
In this way, haremlik greetings were created in trams and men and women traveled separately. The gap between the blinds and the big boys traveling with women led to interesting controversy. In the novels of the great writer Hüseyin rahmi Gürpınar (Şıpsevdi), there are fun pages about this.
Haremlik-selamlık application in trams was abolished after the Republic.
The fare on the first trams was expensive compared to its time. 60 okka (1.5 okka = 1 gr.) Bread or 1283 okka olives, 1 okka onion, 3 okka charcoal, 6 daily newspaper, 6 package tobacco is purchased. Over time travel costs have been reduced.
Yellow-painted Horse Trams are usually pulled by two horses, while on slopes two more horses are tied to the cars as a reserve. For this reason, small stables were built for these spare horses at the beginning of the slope. When the reinforcement horses were leveled at the end of the slope, they were dissolved and taken back to their stables. It is known that there are horse stables in Bankalar Street at the beginning of Şişhane slope and Alemdar street at the beginning of Divanyolu slope.
The stall waiting in the stables, the spare horse runs into the wagon, but then goes to the flat in order to bring him back to the barn, he sits next to the driver; When the slope was over, he would ride on his horse and go back to the stable. The trip doesn't always look healthy, often on slopes, horseback trams would back up back and lead to dramatic scenes. The horses that were carefully selected during the establishment of the company were beautiful and majestic Hungarian and Austrian cups and they were very well cared for. However, they soon became useless because of the fact that they were caring for maintenance work and were overloaded. Significant decreases in tram speeds were observed as the new horse was not towed. Accordingly, criticism of the use of horse trams as not suitable for Istanbul began to be expressed in the daily life of those days. Istanbullunun transportation preference, was still walking. Paying money for transportation to most Istanbulites was also worthwhile.
“With the arrival of the tramway horses to our city, according to the information we have received about cruising and travel, these combinations are firstly assigned to the Şişli line and after they have been served there for three years, they are transferred to Azapkapı and employed there for two years and employed in Topkapı for one year, subsequent lifetimes were also accused of the history of Samatya. If those who are exclusively exempted from tul-i life occur, they would have been handed over to the donkeys, and they were walking around the street ... ”Ahmet RASİM
By the way, after another 12 annual operation experience of the business permit of the Dersaadet Tramway Company, 28 signed another contract signed in July 1881 (see Annex: Contracts) while the 36 year was extended by 6 months, while the contract agreed with the additional document;
- Voyavoda Street - Kabristan Street (Today's Tepebaşı Square) - Büyük Street - Taksim - Pangaltı - Şişli,
- Eminönü - Balıkpazarı - Odunkapısı - Cibali - Fener - Balat -Eyüp,
- Tatavla (Kurtuluş) by deviating from a point to be detected in the first line,
The second line never materialized. An innovation that comes with this contract is that the cost of the trip is tied to the distance (so much money per thousand meters). In addition, if the company's profit exceeds 15%, it is interesting that the transportation charges are reduced and a complaint book is placed at the stops. In the same year, tram lines started to be laid on Galata, Tepebaşı and Istiklal Street.
The composition of the partners of the Tram Company is changing and the Galata Bankers are gradually replaced by other foreigners. During this period, among the shareholders, the famous Jewish lawyer of the business world, Maitre Salem, is located. The company is good with the government and Sultan Hamid. In November 31 1907 (see Annex: Contract), the concession period has been increased to 75 year, as well as the construction and operation of some new lines.
1 of the contract. According to the article;
- From Beyazıt - to Fatih and Edirnekapı by way of Şehzadebaşı,
- From Galatasaray to Tunnel,
- From Pangalti to Tatavla (Liberation),
- From Eminönü to Eyüp,
- From Unkapanı via Vefa to Fatih,
- From Ortaköy to Kuruçeşme and Bebek,
three lines would open.
5 for others, 10 for others, was given for the time.
500 m. provided that the Government would give concessions to other persons and organizations. Customs exemption was provided for the material required for construction, and the company was granted the authority to issue bonds for domestic borrowing.
The horse-drawn tramway line was extended in 1911 to Kurtuluş and Şişli.
During these years, there was a great pressure on the Company and the Government to run the electric trams operated in Europe in Istanbul. Especially the foreign colony, Louis Rambert, general manager of the Tobacco Regime, was very eager. The main complaint was the smell of horse and manure, with stables set up on the roads for horse-drawn trams. For all these reasons, article 1907 of the contract (11); The phrase “if it is permitted to run the tram cars with the force of electricity in the future…” was added.
Dersaadet Tramway Company, in the first year of operation 4.5 has carried the passenger close to the million, 53.000 Lira had provided income. The company's 430 horse-mounted fleet fleet consisted of 100 cars. Some of these cars had open seats. These were two-storey wagons. They were the cause of intense interest.
The company established tram depots in Aksaray, Beşiktaş, Tatavla and Şişli. In these warehouses, there were carpenters in the barns where horses were sheltered and the tram cars were repaired.
ACCURATE TO ELECTRIC TRAININGS
The first electric tram in Istanbul was operated 33 year after the first electric tram in the world. Istanbul has been considerably delayed on electric trams according to the tramlines. 1881 1883 year in 1889 33 1881 36 1907 75 1908 XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX in the hands of this right in the hands even though it does not want to spend money on the electric trolley in the hands of a reason why the Ottoman throne in the Ottoman Empire. Sultan Abdülhamid is said to have a great fear of electricity and electricity. Since the operation permit of Dersaadet Tramway Company has been renewed for a period of time, there has been no attempt for electric tram until XNUMX.
In 1910, the Ottoman Government granted a 50-year concession in Istanbul to the Ganz Anonim Elektrik Companies headquartered in Pest (Hungary). In 1911, the "Ottoman Joint Stock Electricity Company" was established. There was now an electricity supply for the trams. In the same year, the necessary contract for the electrical operation of the wagons of the Tramway Company is signed. But there is a snag. To the article that provides the possibility of using electric power to the trams with the 1907 contract; The British-based Tunnel Company objects, saying that it has the right to operate the electric transportation vehicles and says that they will demand compensation. Debate Tram Operator kazanwas, the two companies agreed, the Tunnel Company was purchased by the Tramlers for 95,000 pounds, to be paid on 5% interest bonds. Thus, in January 1910, since the Tünel line was transferred to the Tramway Company, the 1911 Contract could be signed and permission to connect electricity to the tram was obtained.
In 1912, with the emergence of the Balkan War, the Government purchased all horses of the Dersaadet Tramway Company for 30,000 Gold Liria. This, in the unlikely situation, Istanbul people remained trampled for a year. And the period of horse-drawn trams ended with the Balkan War.
On the other hand, despite the removal of the routes even on the double, the efficiency decline could not be prevented. Because the carrying power of the 430 horse was useless due to the lack of care and fatigue of the animals.
On the same dates (21 November 1911), the decision on İst Power to Power in Dersaadet Tramway Company,, the government envisaged the licensing of electric energy in tram cars across the network. Electrified by this contract, the tram company was obliged to build factories, to buy electricity, to approve the price to the Nafia Ministry, to lay a double line to the Karaköy bridge, and to remove the old roads to 15 (1 = 68 cm).
The materials to be brought from foreign countries for the facilities, real estate, land, revenues, stocks and bonds of the company; stamp and pictures were immune. In addition, with the same date document added to the contract, the construction of the electrical facilities will start in the 6 month and will be completed within the 24 month at the latest.
On electric trolleys, the necessary electricity or a collector located above the trolley was obtained from the gap between the rails by means of a pantograph search or a device attached to the bottom of the trolley. When the electricity was taken from the air line, the circuit was completed with rails. However, when the electricity is taken from the underground, the wires are arranged both positive and negative. The tram motors also operated the rheostatic brake. The tram rails could be laid either in the middle of the road or buried in the ground. In both cases, they could move along with general traffic. Recently, the trams were separated from the general traffic and taken to a special road where the surrounding area was preserved.
First Electric Tram
For the first time in the Ottoman Empire, the first electric trolleys were tested in Damascus. This was possible with the continuous pressures made to the Dersaadet Tram Company. However, Atlı Tramways started to be operated first in Istanbul and then in other cities of the Empire: Damascus, Baghdad, Izmir and Konya.
In the 1913, Dersaadet Tramway Company accepted the operation of the Istanbul Tramways and started to work and this study lasted until February of 1914. February 1914'da Istanbul 's first electric trolley with a great ceremony began on the Karaköy-Ortakoy line. Therefore, a great ceremony was held in Karaköy; After the prayers and the sacrifices read, Şehremini Bedreddin Bey gave a speech and wished the electric trams would be beneficial to Istanbul.
The ceremonial photo taken that day was published in Paris in I'llustration, 7 published in February. The proceeds of that day were left to the Navy Society.
In the same year, the wooden Galata Bridge was restored for the fourth time, iron was provided to pass through the trams.
Dersaadet Tramway Company raised the capital of the company to 35,531.- Lira by collecting 2.5 Lira from 266,482 shareholder in order to draw overhead lines, provide the necessary materials, construct the facilities and purchase motor wagons (motris). In the meantime, the first electric tram was put into service on February 20, 1914 in Tophane on the Karaköy - Ortaköy route, as stated above, as the Ottoman Incorporated Electric Company, founded by the Belgians, gave the Dersaadet Tram Company a power. With the operation of the electric tram, the first tram operation over the Galata Bridge has been a source of excitement for Istanbul residents. Separate ceremonies were held here due to the laying of the line and the opening of the bridge to the tramway. After the tram started to pass over the Galata Bridge, a 1 cent "Köprü Mürürye Official" was added to the tram tickets.
The trams were passed through the Galata Bridge and connected to the city's Istanbul and Beyoğlu sides in 1914. KabataşWith the electricity produced by an electricity factory established in Istanbul, trams started to carry passengers. Wide range rails of horse-drawn trams were narrowed in order for electric trams to work. As in the first run of the tunnel; In the beginning, electric trams were also irritated. They worked with very few passengers for a while. Finally, Istanbulites started to take advantage of the innovations of the age by accepting electricity and tram. A modern transportation opportunity was created with trams, a fast, comfortable, cheap and reliable vehicle for Istanbul of that day. Therefore, more and more passengers had been moved day by day. With the launch of Silahtarağa electricity factory, the electric tram operation was expanded throughout the city. Meanwhile, the Ortaköy line was extended to Bebek.
28 In May 1912, with another contract added to the 1911 contract, the company accepted the construction of the new line 5. (See Annex: Contracts).
- Aksaray – Silivrikapısı
- A new annex connecting to the main line by passing in front of Eminönü – Bahçekapısı Police Station.
- Taksim – Dolmabahce
- Harbiye – Macka
- Feriköy – Kasımpaşa – Azapkapısı
11 In January 1913 was cut off the electric current with the order of the government, 14 February 1914 was issued with a contract on the tram network current.
The start of World War I made the construction and expansion of lines difficult. I even stopped for a month transportation 8 months. The war years were often the period of the company's recession. 100 cars were ordered from Europe, but the number of 5 cars was broken, roads were distorted due to military transportation, material shortages, expensive and lack of personnel affected the financial situation of the company.
The Dersaadet Tramway Company, sensing the developments towards the Republic, made an agreement with the Ankara Government on 17 June 1923 as a result of the attempts of Şehremini Haydar Bey of the period. Accordingly, a commission consisting of nafia, municipality and company representatives was established to meet every three months in order to determine the tariffs, pay the wages of the company personnel, etc. In addition, it was envisaged that the capital of the company would be doubled when necessary, 1% of the income from January 1923, 1.25, and 1% of the income from January 1924, 3.5, should be allocated as municipal allowance, and all personnel would be Turkified within six months. In return, the Company would increase the shares of its capital from 50 thousand to 85,533 and increase its capital to 1,454,027.- Lira.
While the foreign capital and minority capital were rapidly replaced by Turkish capitalists, the Tram Company was able to maintain its status for a long time, until the beginning of the 2 World War.
In 1923, the company's general outlook was: 12 on line 210 car (141 motris, 69 trailer) was serving. 1699 staff at the company; The average 210 car expedition on the day, 10.4 million km per year. 55.5 million pounds, 2.3 million pounds of revenue were generated, 1.9 million pounds were spent and 413 thousand pounds (2) was provided. Km. 0.784 million kWa per year via 6.5 kWa was used in passenger transportation.
The Dersaadet Tramway Company made a new contract with the Ankara Government on July 21, 1926.
According to this contract;
- Tram lines will be opened to other parts of the city,
- Construction of the 7.5-meter-wide section of the new lines, as well as the constant maintenance and repairs of the 10-meter-wide section of the new lines and the 15-meter-wide sections of the old lines, will be carried out by the Company,
- For the expropriation of the new lines to be opened, the Company will pay 250,000.- TL to the Municipality. The Municipality will provide only 100,000.- TL of this amount, 10.- TL every year in 10,000 years. will pay over
- In order to increase the number of vehicles in the city, 4 buses would be operated as a trial, provided that the concession was not permanent.
- With a new additional contract on July 27, 1926, the capital of the company was increased to 27 million Swiss francs, with the addition of 8 million Swiss francs, the total capital was 35 million Swiss francs.
With this contract, Dersaadet Tramway Company listed the tram lines to be created according to their priorities as follows:
First Degree Lines
- Unkapani Sehzadebasi
- Unkapani Eyup
- Fatih Edirnekapi
Second Degree Lines
- Azapkapısı (near Karaköy)
- Kasımpaşa Surp Agop (near Taksim)
- Taksim Dolmabahce
- Eminonu Sultanhamami Unkapani
Discretionary Lines (Company left)
- Aksaray – Silivrikapısı
- Macka – Besiktas
- Sehzadebasi – Yenikapi
- Kasimpasa – Sutluce
- Continuing from Bebek to the Bosphorus
- Kasimpasa - Yenisehir - Ferikoy
The company has not fulfilled its commitment to open the line with various excuses, raised more money for the works it did as a result of the contract and did not start despite the 8 year. By omitting the date order, the contract is not made by the company; The 1923 contract was revoked by the Ministry of Public Works and the 8 was withdrawn from the public throughout the year for the construction and expropriation of the 1 million 700 thousand TL İstanbul streets.
TRAMVAY AT THE ANATOLIAN SIDE
The first works on the operation of the tram in the Asian side of Istanbul were launched in 1927. First, however, the Üsküdar-Bağlarbaşı X Kısıklı line was put into service at 1928. A year later, Bağlarbaşı-Haydarpaşa and Üsküdar-Haydarpaşa lines; After the business profit, Bostancı, Moda, Feneryolu lines were opened. The Anatolian side of the business with the permission of the Municipality of Üsküdar and Havalisi Halk Tramvaylar TAŞ. It undertook. The Üsküdar and Havalisi Trams Company was formed with the initiative of the Foundation and the participation of the people of the environment. Later, Istanbul Municipality acquired the shares of the Foundations Administration and acquired the company's 90.
Üsküdar, with the agreement signed between the Deputy of Nafia Recep and Istanbul City Hamit Bey, on 2 July 1928, Kadıköy The right to operate the tram in the region up to Beykoz and Anadolu Feneri with its surroundings was given to Üsküdar and Neighborhood Public Tramway Company. According to the signed contract:
- Concession network, Üsküdar – Kadıköy It will include the area up to Beykoz and Anadolu Feneri, both internally and externally.
- The city has granted this concession to Üsküdar- Kısıklı-Alemdağ Public Tramway TAŞ.' what will transfer.
- Uskudar – Haydarpasa; Karacaahmet – Baglarbasi; Haydarpasa – Kadıköy; Kadıköy - Kızıltoprak - Feneryolu; Kadıköy - Fashion lines will be made compulsory within 5 years after the signature date of the contract.
- Apart from these lines; Kadıköy-Gazh hosts; Feneryolu - Fenerbahçe; Feneryolu - Bostancı; Üsküdar - Beykoz; Kadıköy - Acıbadem - K.Çamlıca; Gazhane- Merdivenköyü with its lines; Merdivenköyü - Erenköyü - Caddebostan; Bostancı - İçerenköyü; Beykoz - Anatolian lighthouse; Merdivenköyü - Sıraselviler - Libade - Kısıklı hotline,
can be done voluntarily.
8 June 1928 on the Anatolian coast Friday morning Üsküdar-Bağlarbaşı-Kisik line was opened to the operation was mentioned above. However, because of the narrow line and inefficient condition, the operating company is in a difficult position. In the following year (1929), Bağlarbaşı and Haydarpaşa lines were completed and put into service.
While the company carries out the enlargement of the network, Üsküdar - Haydarpaşa (Line no: 10); He ordered the materials of Bağlarbaşı - Karacaahmet lines.
These two lines were put into operation on 13 July 1929 and the length of the tram network had found 10.5 km.
When it was understood that the company could not survive with the narrow and inefficient condition of the 4.5 km Üsküdar - Kısıklı line, it was understood that the company could not continue its existence, and remedies to improve the network were sought. According to this; Uskudar - Haydarpasa - Kadıköy The line had to be built and operated. However, Üsküdar - Kadıköy Tram lines, both internal and external, were not granted.
According to the agreement signed by Emin Ali Beyfendiler, Chairman of the Board of Directors of İstanbul Şehremini Muhiddin and on behalf of the Company, on the date of 15 March 1929;
· Üsküdar - Kısıklı - Alemdağı Halk Tramvayları TAŞ. ', In accordance with the provisions of the contracts dated 31 August 1927 between the city and Evkaf and the installation of the tram, and from Evkaf. has been transferred to the Company on June 492.970, 8, when it actually started to work.
· 1928.-TL has committed to provide 100.000.-TL until 1933 every year since 500.000.
· Company; prior to the establishment of the company, 16.500.-TL, including 150,000.-TL, which the city paid the head of the house to make the line work, has agreed to give shares to the city every year with its 100.000.-TL account with the 500.000.-TL account.
TRAMWAY NETWORK IS GROWING
In 1929, Fatih-Edirnekapı line was commissioned on the Istanbul coast, and in the same year, the Bağlarbaşı and Haydarpaşa lines on the Asian side were completed. After the company canceled the first two lines, tram lines were extended to Moda, Fenerbahçe, Bostancı and Hasanpaşa directions in the following years. In the beginning, there was no stop on the Anatolian side. Over time, as a result of the increase of mansions, some points were selected as stops. Üsküdar and Havalisi Folk Trolleys Company's tram cars were different from the Istanbul side. The doors were sliding and in the middle. Üsküdar trams were now in service at the IETT workshop in Bağlarbaşı.
While these developments continued on the Anatolian side, Tramway Company was also operating on the Istanbul coast. 170 from the 120 tram of the Şişli depot every day, 70 from the 50 tram of the Beşiktaş store, and the 80 from the 60 tramway of the Aksaray store were on service.
The total line length of this tram company was 30 km in the 34s. It was around and there were 320 trams. At the same time, on the Anatolian side, 4 trams were running on Üsküdar-Kışıklı, Üsküdar-Bağlarbaşı-Haydarpaşa Üsküdar Doğancılar- Haydarpaşa and Bağlarbaşı - Haydar-paşa lines, and 24 of the 16 trams were in service. Total line length is 10.7 km.' was.
Text Box: Due to the 10th anniversary of the proclamation of the Republic, ceremonies would be held in Istanbul as well as in the whole country. A week or so before 29 October, an order of President Atatürk is conveyed to the Istanbul Tram Company. On Sunday, October 29, 1933, all trams and buses of Istanbul will be put into service. This order was fully fulfilled as a result of the conscious and disciplined work of the workers in the warehouse. That day, all the defective trams in the workshop were repaired and put on a journey. Thus, in the history of Istanbul Public Transport, a situation that cannot be easily realized has been experienced and 320 trams and 4 buses in the warehouses have been put into the service of Istanbulites. Most probably, the provision of service with 100% capacity was realized in Istanbul for the first time among the world's public transportation companies. line 22 It is as follows:
- Taksim Sirkeci
- Sisli Sirkeci
- Taksim, Aksaray
- Ortakoy Aksaray
- Fatih Sirkeci
- Taksim Fatih
Bağlarbaşı-Karacaahmet-Haydarpaşa line on the Anatolian Side was established in 1930 in the place of Üsküdar-Bağlarbaşı-Haydarpaşa and Üsküdar-Doğancılar-Karacaahmet lines. After the construction of the tram services, buses from the truck were frequently seen on the tram network and the Üsküdar network of 1550 meters was converted into double lines.
While the centers were built in order to provide electricity from the city more economically than the old diesel engines, in addition to the 150,000. However, the debt that the company agreed to pay to foundations could not be paid due to financial difficulties.
30 On June 1931 According to the principles of the agreement signed between the Municipality of Istanbul and Necmeddin Sahir Beyefendi and the Director of Evkaf General Manager Rüştü Beyefendi on behalf of the Company, the General Directorate of Foundations of Evkaf General Directorate;
- To transfer the land where the network and building, equipment, installation, factory and garage are located to the Company, with the Tramway concession that the Istanbul Municipality bought with the contracts dated March 9, 1925 and August 31, 1927 and also transferred to the Company with the contract dated March 15, 1929,
- Elimination of the debt by obtaining 468,220 of the Company's shares worth 250.000.- Liras, each of which is 5.-Lira, against 50.000.- Liras to be received from the Istanbul Municipality,
- It was accepted by the law numbered 22 on 1931 June 1831, which was enacted by the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Also;
- The Municipality will pay the remaining 468.220.-TL of 218.220.-TL from June, which is the beginning of the 1931 fiscal year, until the end of 1942,
- If the company; Evkaf will accept the mortgage of the real estate in return for its receivables.
Thus, the privilege of tram operation, Üsküdar - owned by the Municipality - Kadıköy and its transfer Halk Tramları TAŞ. what was given.
As we approached the end of the 1930s, the process of liquidation of the Dersaadet Tramway Company, which is connected to the same center as the electricity company, was entered on the Istanbul coast. In 1938, the last year of operation of the company, as a result of public transportation with 177 tram, including 83 motris and 260 trailers; 15,356,364 km. The 73,039,303.-TL of the revenue collected was used at the cost of the 2,385,129 passenger transported by trip and 27,821.- TL. profit was obtained. In trams, 12,909,840 Kwh electrical energy is consumed in exchange for this service.
Towards the end of the 1930, the efficiency of the Dersaadet Tramway Company began to decline. The provisions of his agreement in 1926 had not been fulfilled for a long time. In the end, the Ministry of Nafia annulled the 1926 treaty and announced that the conditions of 1923 are valid (as mentioned above). 1,700,000.- TL was withdrawn from the company for the construction of the streets of Istanbul (see Appendix: The Law on Allocation of the money received from the Istanbul Tram Company for the Reconstruction of the City of Istanbul, 17 January 1938). A purely arbitrary policy was intended to hold only the operating rights for a long time. Upon the determination of this situation by the Turkish Government, works were initiated for the liquidation of the Tram Company together with the Electricity Company.
1938 motto and 177 trailer tramway were serviced daily in the last year of operation at the 83. 980,000 voyages were made with these services annually. The energy he spent was finding 12,909,804 Kwh. 2,412,949.- TL. ' 2,385,128.- TL. and the company has made a profit of 27,821.- TL. These numbers show that there has not been any significant change in the profile of Istanbul (economic and demographic) for 15 years.
A new contract was signed between Ankara Government and Istanbul Tram Company. All facilities were purchased from 1 January 1939 and were delivered to İstanbul Municipality. The first reconstruction movement in Istanbul went parallel with the confiscation of the Tram. Because the government (Inonu Government) hoped to provide some of the necessary resources for reconstruction from the tram operation it would nationalize.
In return for this purchase, approximately TL 13 would be paid to the company over 1,560,000 years. The business had first passed to the Government. Later (6 months later), the transfer of the tram operation was finalized with the law dated 12 June 1939 and numbered 3642. kazanIstanbul Electric Tramway and Tunnel Operations General Directorate, which was established with the law numbered 3645, undertook this task on behalf of the Municipality.
Trams in battle
Towards the end of 1939, when IETT was established, II. The onset of World War II caused problems in urban transportation in Istanbul. Except for the tunnel, almost the only means of transport was the tram. The prolonged war, the lack of gasoline and tires required for rubber-wheeled transportation vehicles increased the load of the trams one more time. Tramways, bandages, rails, scissors, copper wire, etc. Despite the material shortages, they successfully left this period by continuing their services. The tram was not affected by the war and fuel shortages because it was powered by electricity. Continuing in Europe II. While all the negativities of the World War were reflected in every aspect of life, the tram was perhaps the only exception and continued without interruption. We cannot pass an interesting event here without citing. During the war years, trams also obeyed "blackout". The round windows of the two light bulbs in front of the tram and the small rectangular windows on the edge of the ceiling were painted in dark blue paint. Curtains closed the large windows. Also, the light bulb illuminating the sign had changed color. This was the only change the war brought to the trams of Istanbul.
The trams that matched the blackout, worked like this until the end of the war. In the beginning, although the passenger was initially outdated, he got used to it. Those who saw the blue light in front of the tram in the distance "coming," he made the move towards the road. The signboard wasn't read, but it wasn't a problem.
IETT FOUNDATION LAW NUMBER 3645 ARTICLE 2: Administrations transferred to Istanbul Municipality by this law shall be administered by a General Directorate affiliated to Istanbul Mayor's Office, which has a legal personality to be established under the name of "Istanbul Electricity, Tramway and Tunnel Operations General Directorate". ARTICLE 3: Duties of the General Directorate: a To resign the interests transferred to it and to perform the duties imposed. b Arranging, improving, modifying and extending the electrical installation, electric tram network and tunnel installation in order to distribute electricity power in Istanbul's Rumeli and Anatolian Sides and its vicinity and on the Islands, and to expropriate the property, expropriation and all transactions and undertakings for their operations. It is to extend and reinforce the discussion by establishing trolleybus and bus services, if necessary.
Since spare parts were not available, some of the cars, trucks and buses were towed to the garages. There were problems in urban public transportation, which was provided by a small number of buses. Vehicle owners were faced with the problem of finding spare parts in addition to finding fuel. Trams, however, were out of these problems. It was very rare for trams to malfunction. After their warehouse maintenance, they continued their voyages for a long time without any interruption. Spare parts needs of trams were less than buses or automobiles. On the other hand, there was the possibility of transferring materials to each other, since most of them had the same models. In fact, apart from the parts in the electric motor, it was possible to produce the others in the workshops in Istanbul. IETT's Şişli Warehouse was very successful in this regard.
However, since the post-war Europe did not produce spare parts after the 1946, the operation of the tramway started. Most of the trolley cars were 33-age, they were inadequate for the increasing urban population, the rails were worn out. The decision to reduce tram speeds was implemented in order to prevent the rails from becoming more worn. In the meantime, the press had increased the criticism. Among these numerous examples, we can give the following 2 example:
Even as they run down the narrow street in the evening,
Trams on the road are like turtles.
Everywhere there is his saga,
Yesterday we came to the tomb in ten minutes from Beyazit.
… Tram Company is the people of Istanbul
is not yet accepted. Us
lumber, sack, sawdust or gas crate,
thinks that it is an unassigned, emotionless and inanimate item…
Server Bedi (Peyami Safa)
Finally the 30 km from America and Belgium. The rails were replaced, bringing the rail up. In the 1946-1947 years, a project was prepared for the removal of the tunnel operation and for the trams to land in Karaköy from the tunnel. According to the project, it was envisaged that the buildings in the Karaköy exit of the tunnel would be demolished to the sea. This meant a very high cost, so the project was abandoned.
1939 by 258 tram per day, 15.3 million km per year. As 78.4 million passengers are transported, the 1950 tram goes out every day in 267 and 14.1 million miles per year. 97.5 million passengers were transported. These figures had fallen below 1939 in the war years.
A closer look at some tram lines in the 1950 shows that there are always two wagons on the tram line going to Topkapı. The attractive motive in front is sometimes red and sometimes green. Red would be the first, green second-position tram. Ticket prices were different. The first-class car seats were made of leather and soft. In the second position the seats were full and hard. The tram line, which was double in all parts of the city, was transformed into a single line on the present day in this street. Because the street width was not suitable for laying the tram line.
Old Istanbul houses with wood, bay windows were being inserted into the tram line in a part of the road. Five ten bulbs on the top of a pole beside the stop were either on or off, indicating whether or not a tram was coming. Aksaray came from the station before moving from the patrol to look at these lamps. If there was a tram arriving by the invisible, he would wait for his arrival. In older years, large and large mirrors were used instead of lamps. Topkapi finish tram lines in Pazartekke, the end of the expedition was the point indicating. Here, the ticket-taker would pick up the ticket box and start to unscrew the mirror on the right-hand side of the door on the right-hand side of the gate. When he removed the mirror that passengers control the passengers at the stops, he went to the back, and he had screwed up the mirror on the right side of the divan area. This was a little bit of preparation next time. Another task of the ticket-taker was to turn the seats into the direction of the tram. Seats were not fixed.
Beyazıt Square has a special place in the history of the trams. It was where some of the trams running in various districts of Istanbul passed. The trams around the magnificent pool on the square gave a separate view here.
There was no more than the walls for the trams. In those years, the inner city boundary of Istanbul started from Ayvansaray and the city walls from Edirnekapı, Topkapı, Mevlanakapı to Yedikule were drawn. Beyond the city walls was urban. It would be very secluded.
The city's Beyoğlu side of the trams adorned. From Beyazıt, from Sirkeci to Maçka, from Aksaray, from Fatih to Harbiye, from Tunnel to Şişli, from Sirkeci to Mecidiyeköy, from Eminönü to Kurtuluş was running a tram. The tram on these routes passed through Istiklal Street, inside the entertainment center of Istanbul, Beyoglu. After passing around Taksim Square in the Harbiye, Maçka, Kurtuluş, Şişli and Mecidiyeköy. Mecidiyeköy was the last stop of the trams in Beyoğlu. Trams stopped just behind the Ali Sami Yen Stadium in front of the IETT Department of Vehicles, which was demolished today. More and more gardens, mulberry gardens were located.
An important historical event in which the trams of Beyoğlu District have taken part in and witnessed are events of 6-7 September. Top cloths of Beyoğlu stores, which were looted, were attached to the back of the trams and the trams did not work until the center was cleared. Today, the old homeland of the Nostalgic Tram, which operates in Beyoglu, excitedly describing the images they witnessed and witnessed in those days.
The only line running to the Bosphorus was the Eminonu-Bebek line. Trams of this line were different from the others. The three-wagon tram would not work in any district of Istanbul. However, between Eminönü-Bebek, three trams made trams. This is because; The road from Eminönü to Bebek was described as being flat, no slopes, or a multitude of passengers.
Besiktas-Ortaköy, the fastest way to go trams. Trams passing ”like wind lar from the ruins of Çırağan Palace stopped at the honor stadium. This posture would usually be match days. The next section of the line from Ortakoy trams. In Arnavutköy, it stretches parallel to the sea. Here, sometimes, a race between trams and city-line ferries would begin. The bell bell of the tram, the whistle's whistle were the most obvious signs of the short race. But the winner of the race was unclear. In some parts of the road between the sea and the tram line, the buildings enter, sometimes the ferry to the pier or change the course of the race, the finish of the race was unknown. The waves of baby trams would wet the waves exploding on land. Cape Cape was known as a place that shook their homeland in the winter. Parents who worked in the baby line were affected by the wind blowing from the Bosphorus while passing through Akıntı Burnu and Arnavutköy. According to the patriarchs, three coldest places in Istanbul in winter; Arnavutköy was on the bridge and Saraçhanebaşıydı. For this reason, they wanted to pass very fast.
If we take a brief look at Anatolian Side trams, we see that tram models and colors are different. Yellow, purple, blue, green painted trams would work Kadıköy'also. They were very different from the trams running in other parts of the city. This difference was revealed everywhere, from the doors to the seats. The ride was more comfortable. The shakes were small. The center of the trams on the Anatolian side Kadıköy'Di. All lines would start from here. The first stops of the trams along the coast were under the trees at the exit of the pier. Those who would go to Moda, Fenerbahçe, Bostancı, Üsküdar, Kısıklı and Haydarpaşa would wait at this stop. The first tram line to be lifted Kadıköy- It was a fashion line. The tram line that turns from Altın to Moda has been dismantled.
Kalamış, Fenerbahçe, Göztepe, Erenköyü, Caddebostanı, Suadiye and Bostancı were the summer districts of Istanbul. KadıköyThe trams departing from Istanbul would get off from Altıyol and cross the Kurbağalıdere Bridge. After passing by Fenerbahçe Stadium, they would reach Kızıltoprak stop. Less than Kızıltoprak, there was another stop called Depo. The tram line was divided into two here. While Bostancı trams were going right, Fenerbahçe trams would turn to Kalamış Caddesi.
Bostancı used tram number 4. Consisting of two wagons Kadıköy- The front wagon of the Bostancı tram would be the first and the second at the back. Trams used to pass through Bağdat Caddesi. The line was laid on both sides of the road, and other vehicles used to come and go. Bostancı tram, following Kızıltoprak- Göztepe-Suadiye road, would have descended from the slope after passing over the train bridge. The end of the slope was Bostancı Square. The tram curled in front of the street leading to the pier would pass by the historical fountain and come to the stop.
KadıköyTransportation between Üsküdar was also provided by tram. Number 12 car would work on this line. KadıköyHe would depart from Çayırbaşı, Selimiye, and from there he left Karacaahmet cemetery behind and came to Tunusbağı. Then he returned from Ahmediye and went to Üsküdar. "Do you have any landing in Karacaahmet?" his call would cause laughter.
Kısıklı tram was separated from the scissors in Selimiye. He went to Bağlarbaşı after passing through the cemeteries. The last stop was Kısıklı. Those who came to Çamlıca Hill on a picnic would use this line. Another line is Kadıköy-Hasanpaşa line. He would return from Gazhane, the gas distribution facility.
The tram curled in front of the street leading to the pier would pass by the historical fountain and come to the stop. The stop was at the end of the road that descended from Altıntepe, passed under the train bridge and merged with Bostancı. For a new trip from Bostancı KadıköyThis time the tram heading towards, would go from the other side of the road.
LETTERS AFTER 1950
40'li years passed, the kingdom of the kingdom 'motor vehicle and asphalt' was sitting in the duo. Ray and the wagon were considered 'tapon, outdated and fusty'. Therefore, Turkey Nihat Erim also come to the Ministry of Public Works in the first 1947 'highway' policy; when it approved its importation with its staff, the end of this decision would touch the trams of Istanbul.
As a matter of fact, as in the history of Turkey, the beginning of 1950 was the beginning of a new era in the history of public transport. With the transition to the multi-party system, Istanbul would take its share of the changes in the central government. Great zoning movements and expropriations were initiated in the city. The buildings were being demolished, the streets were being widened, the areas were opening. On the other hand, the number of motor vehicles increased rapidly. A new vehicle in the streets of Istanbul, the dolmuş had shown the supply. In contrast to the world, the automobile was not a means of personal transport, but the stop turned into a kind of transportation. Large American cars, which were sold illegally from Belgium by triptych, reinforced the dependence of our country on foreign sources in terms of spare parts and fuel, but the trams, which were native to almost everything, were thoroughly discredited, they were constantly criticized.
On the other hand, the assembly industry establishments are being erected in Istanbul, and the factories of the workshop are growing rapidly, the migrant neighborhoods flowing like floods from Anatolia and the Balkans and the slums in the slums end up like mushrooms and Istanbul is growing rapidly.
It is interesting to note that the tramway was not thought to be included on the roads such as the runway opened with the new (second) zoning movement, and the tram was intentionally erased from the urban scene. As mentioned, the public air was also not in favor of trams.
As a result of all this, on 1 August 1953, Maçka-Tunnel-Tram line was removed. Then, Taksim-Eminönü, Kadıköy-Fashion and Bostancı lines were coming. Trams were constantly hurting, and buses were making profit. In this case, the tramway should be removed because the number of vehicles was low, disrupted traffic, the wagons worn out, its passengers were reduced, its policy was becoming widespread.
It was understood that the trams would be lifted, but the time was not clear. In the meantime, the tram rails on the road were buried on the Anatolian Side in order to prevent Üsküdar and Havalisi Halk Trams Company vehicles from disrupting other traffic. However, the economic situation of the company was shaken. He could not perform his services. In the General Assembly held on 11 November 1954, the decision of termination and liquidation was taken and the transfer of the enterprise to Istanbul Municipality was requested. The articles in the press also criticized the municipality for not taking over this company. Finally, the decision of the City Council 1 April 1955 to give the Anatolian Side tram operation to the İETT'ya decision, the Anatolian Side was delighted.
A short time later, this organization was also attached to the General Directorate of IETT. The 56 tram line, which is now fully operated by IETT in Istanbul, was even reduced to 1960 in 16. In 1950, 7.4 million TL expense was related to 10 million TL income of the enterprise and 1960 million TL was spent in 9.8 for 23.7 million TL. As seen, the budget deficit of 1950 million TL in 3s has exceeded 1960 million TL in 10. Also 1951 in 262 yearly runs 13.6 million km per year by tram. 97.8 1961 by 82 by 4.2 a year ago. 26.5 million passengers were transported
This is the end of the electric tram on the Istanbul coast after a full 90 year. The final preparations were made for the commissioning of the trolleybuses. And by a telephone order, the trams will be on their last expedition on the 12 August 1961.
On the last day, all the wagons were equipped with lush green taffelan and laurel branches. Some of them had a "last time" sign in front of the patrol place and some of them were hung with cloth rags all over their windows, "Goodbye, dear passengers!" who wrote ... The ornaments of the wagons were ex-veteran and loyal personnel. There was no decision taken by the Administration for this; the master vatmans were Çilekes ticketers.
Goodbye, DEAR PASSENGER!
The author of the book called Tram in Istanbul, Celik Gulersoy, who is the witness of the incident and one of the most important sources of this book, says his book with a painful expression:
"Was it, the trams, the outgoing, about half of our life?"
Aksaray played an important role in the lifting of the tram that Istanbulites loved and loved. Istanbul's trams were not considered much to discredit. Aksaray was the first neighborhood in Istanbul where the tram was lifted, or had its misfortune. The only reason for this was that the construction move in Istanbul was started from Aksaray.
According to officials, a tram to Istanbul was unnecessary. It didn't do anything, and it was hampering traffic. The days when the city had largely provided public transport and tied the city from one end to the other. There was no place for tram in Istanbul, which was ”reforming da with tu reconstruction movement“. The tram, which was the den favorite Yıl of Istanbul for many years, fell from the eye. The benefits of services, almost forgotten, were pushed aside. In fact, there was a lot of people who didn't fit the tram in Istanbul. On the wide streets, the historic tram was even seen as the ı primitive Geniş mark. Instead, more modern vehicles were needed, carrying more passengers. This vehicle has never worked in Istanbul until now.
No investigation, no research, facilities modernization and facilities were not mobilized. If it is well studied, the removal of the tramway operation may be seen at the source of today's transportation problems in Istanbul. Istanbul Side trams were loaded onto barges and moved to the Anatolian side of the city. In the 1961, tram lines running on the Asian side are:
IETT Tramway Company 1965 12.9 2.8 million passengers in the year, 10 million TL. income, XNUMX million TL. ' has realized the expense. Another point that should not be mentioned here is that the fleet numbers of the trams of Istanbul had some characteristics.
For example; single fleet numbered trams II. Location, double fleet number one trolley vehicles was I. Place. From 1914 to 1966, 350 tram was served in Istanbul and Anatolian side. The breakdown and technical specifications of these vehicles are given below.
21 of the AEG model trams were with air brake and automatic catch. Later, their chassis was extended in IETT workshops and more passengers were provided. Metin Duru, one of the İETT engineers, produced and operated a new generation of these trams in Şişli Ateliers with local materials and craftsmanship in 1954. In addition, the 6 tramway engine was replaced by a Parkinson trolleybus engine. These were tested on the road to Kuruçeşme. With a Landrover jeep the tram was brought to the nose and activated at the same time. While the tram is finally on its way, jipin km. ' si was showing 60 per hour. However, there were tremendous tremors in the tram. This issue was fixed by adjusting the resistors later.
TH model trolleys were brought to the 19 units and were made to take double trailers. These were given to Beşiktaş depot.
Siemens brand trams were used by Üsküdar and Havalisi Halk Trams Company on the Anatolian Side. The doors were in the middle and bolt. There were also types used as trailers.
MOTOR: Siemens 50 Kw power, 550 volt permanent drafter Two electric motors
SPEED: 60 km / h
CAPACITY: 34 passenger, 12 seating / 22 standing
PRODUCTION PLACE: F. Germany
INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE: 10.1.1914
MOTOR: BERGMAN 50 Kw in the feed, 550 volt two electric motors
SPEED: 60 km / h
CAPACITY: 37 passenger, 12 seating / 25 standing
PRODUCTION PLACE: F. Germany
INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE: 1914
MOTOR: AEG 45 Kw power, 550 volt permanent drafter Two electric motors
SPEED: 60 km / i
CAPACITY: 45 passenger, 12 seating / 33 standing
PRODUCTION PLACE: F. Germany
INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE: 1926
MOTO: Two electric motors with Thomson 65 Kw power, 600 volt permanent
SPEED: 60 kw / h
CAPACITY: 34 passenger, 12 seating / 22 standing
PRODUCTION PLACE: F. Germany
INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE: 9.1.1928
MOTOR: Siemens 50 Kw power, 550 volt permanent draft
SPEED: 50 km / h
CAPACITY: 42 passenger, 22 seating / 20 standing
PRODUCTION PLACE: F. Germany
INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE: 1934
FIRST GREVE PARTICIPANTS
We want to end our history of the tram by highlighting several historical events and features:
· Implementation of the first strike in the history of the Republic of Turkey was done by workers in Istanbul Tram Company 1928. This strike was attended by 110 tram countrymen and ticketmaker. Therefore, in addition to being the first transportation company, the tram is also the first strike operation.
· An interesting event is told in the memories of a homeland. One of the citizens, came to the Besiktas tram depot, in the hands of the paper written in the trams, he bought them and wants to take to his village says. It's been hard to convince the guy. At the end the work is enlightened. Sülün Osman, the famous pickpocketer of those days, sold the trams to the buggy. The document on his hand shows that he paid 5,000 TL for two trams.
· Red and green colored trams offered comfort option by applying price difference to passengers on the same lines.
· On Saturday and Sunday there were free tram services for military-officers who could not ride civilians.
· In 40 in Istanbul, the tramway operation was valid for 2 hours.
· On the tram routes with major slopes such as Fatih-Harbiye, a single wagon (motris) was usually employed.
· During the summer months, trams were run on every side and more shaky than the other trams. These people were called ”Tango Trailer Bunlar.
· Istanbul's well-known, popular figures were identified with trams and some tram lines. According to Mehmet Çobanoğlu, who was the oldest citizen, Hüseyin Pehlivan from Tekirdağ and İsmail Dümbüllü were the first to come to mind when the Yedikule-Bahçekapı tram line was mentioned.
· Another image to be remembered by trams; while hanging to make a free trip to the back of the trams or picking up a single ticket inside, grabbing the ticket from the hand and going crazy. The two-trailer arrays were unforgettable parts of the summer wagons trams. It was a passion for the kids to jump on the tram or jump off the tram. Not knowing this job was seen as a big deficiency among children, and at the first opportunity, his friends would teach that boy to jump into the tram. The masters of this work would brag that la I jump off the tram when I go with 9 Bu. I 9 ği was the last point where the arm in front of the homeland could be turned. It was a sign of the tram's top speed. The front and the back of the trams were written with the text ama Jump is forbidden and dangerous mak, but it could not be said to have much effect. This event has always continued, even though those who fell underneath the tram fell off the wheels, were injured and died.
· Electric trams were safe vehicles, resulting in fewer accidents than riding trams. The main cause of the accident was excessive speed. The average speed of the trams was 5 in bends and crowded places, and 20-25 km / h in open and straight roads. These speeds were driving downhill, causing drizzling in the drizzle of rain and cornering, leaving the cars out of the way. Another cause of accidents was brake errors. Especially II. Worn brakes had a significant role in the shortage of materials after World War II. In addition, the use of intact brakes without technical rules was also important. Trams; electromagnetic, rheostatic, direct, and handbrake. 'Anger' was an inevitable consequence of material aging or misuse. Another cause of the accident was the weather. In any case that moisturized the rails, the internal device that provides continuous sand spillage was operated. He was in charge of getting out of the dirt, or the failure of the pipes to pour the sand onto the tracks. Again, it should be noted, however, that the trams according to today's cars were extremely safe means of travel.
ŞİŞHANE DISCHARGE There have been different types of accidents on Istanbul Tramways on different dates. However, there is only one of these accidents; It is remembered by the old Istanbulites. This accident, known as Şişhane Disaster, occurred on February 26, 1936. The tram with fleet number 122 under the direction of Vatman Fahri, on the way from Fatih to Harbiye, lost its brakes on the Şişhane slope and came to a stop when it descended rapidly and crashed into an apartment building. In the crowded tram, the passengers were piled on top of each other. 6 passengers died as a result of the collision and crushing. Tram number 122 was also damaged, unusable. After this tram accident, studies were carried out believing that some measures should be taken in urban transportation. Accordingly, it was decided not to take more than 28 passengers on the trams. However, this restriction kazanIt became inapplicable in a short time with the disappearance of its effect. Meanwhile, tram number 122 was repaired in the carpentry shop in Şişli warehouse. It was remade by a master named Aristidi, who had only one finger left on one hand. However, all the authorities were afraid that the tram would be put back into service. Because 122 fleet would not get on the tram. Eventually, the tram's fleet number was changed to 180. And so he went on the expedition. It worked for many years. No one could understand that this tram was the one that caused the Şişhane Disaster and continued its journeys safely.
· On the days when it was snowing, it was necessary to clean the scissors on the lines continuously. If it wasn't cleaned, the snow would turn into ice and prevent the scissor from opening and closing. Therefore, the scissors in certain parts of the lines are always on snowy days.
· IETT's teams served. They took the snow and ice from the scissors with the long iron in their hand, and then cleaned them with small brooms. There was no way of avoiding the working conditions in power conditions by pretending that the weather was rainy or cold. Everyone from his homeland to his ticketmaker, his plankone worker, and the worker who opened the roads, would have the excitement of doing the job. For three and five hours after the rain, Istanbul, snow and rain against the flag of the delivery would not attract.1
AND THE END…
In 1966, when the tramway operation was terminated on the Anatolian side, the vehicles were taken to the tram depot in Kuşdili and they were kept there for a long time. They would be sold if the customer came out. However, according to reports in the newspapers, the trams were neither the area nor the sellers. The snow was rotting in the rain. A part of the trams were given to the scrap dealer. Some of them have detachable seats for sale.
IETT who thought that the summer cinema operators would get them, declared ads to newspapers by saying düşün chair for sale Yazlık. But nobody cared.
Even if it was used on the beach or smashed under the sledgehammer, there were still trams left. After more than 125 trams that were in operation were kept for days, IETT Vehicles Department Chairman Adil Tahtacı made a proposal to General Manager Saffet Gürtav and Mayor Fahri Atabey to evaluate a few of them. Tahtacı said, “Let's build a vehicle museum. Let's put some trams here. "We save them from oblivion." The Mayor found this proposal of Adil Tahtacı, who removed the trams and installed a trolleybus network instead. Work started immediately. 15-20 wagons that were saved from being sent to the camp were overhauled, arranged as in the past and the museum was opened. Finally Kadıköy The tram depot in Kuşdili became the IETT Vehicles Museum.
But a vehicle museum in Istanbul was seen a lot. Half of the building Kadıköy He was given to his fire brigade. There was no room for trams in the museum. Two trams, which were removed from the museum in 1990, were renewed and put into service from the door to the motor, from the window to the seat. Two green "trailers" from the museum were placed behind them. Now he works on the Tunel-Taksim line. As if they want to create the look of the old Beyoğlu, they go back and forth between Taksim - Tunnel,
1 In March 1996, a museum-exhibition, which is mainly based on photography and a few parts from tram operation, was opened to visitors at the entrance of IETT Karaköy Headquarters.
During the liquidation of the museum, some old tram trucks and wagons were still operable, the local government brought the pedestrian zone practices free of traffic and the aspirations of the old Istanbul residents intersected at some point and the project of operating the trams between Tünel and Taksim on Beyoğlu İstiklal Street, albeit on a limited scale. started and carried out.
The Tunnel-Taksim tram, which was put into service on 29 December 1990 with its old colors and features, consists of two tow trucks and wagons. Until January 15, 1991 trips on these trams were made free of charge, after this date, a discounted ticket fee was applied. As of March 20, 1991, IETT discount bus tickets have been valid on the tram. The maximum speeds of trams operating with 600 Volt direct current are 40 km / h and their engine power is 2 x 51 HP. Each vehicle weighs 13 tons. The length of the line is 1,860 meters and the rail width is 1000 millimeters. It is a rail type groove used by trams with 80 mm2 catenary line wire section. Motris lengths are 8,5 meters and their widths are 2.2 meters.
The number of seats is 12 in Motris and 18 in trailers. It is still operated uninterruptedly and smoothly by the Tunnel Branch Directorate and remains a center of attraction for both Istanbul and tourists.