Since the beginning of the 20 century, the demand for travel between the housing and the workplace has arisen due to the industrialization in the cities and the increase in the population due to it.
In the beginning, the means of transportation of animals have increasingly been replaced by today's vehicles, which are powered by steam powered vehicles, then electric vehicles and fossil fuels.
The common aspects of all these means of transportation, in contrast to their distinct structural appearance; they are included in urban transportation and they are intended for public transportation.
The types of transportation vehicles as well as the types of enterprises were also important, and the transportation services, nationalization and social state policies, which were carried out by private enterprises in the past, were carried out by 1. After the World War I, it became a public service because of its influence and after the 1980, privatization was highlighted for the transportation sector as in all public services.
19. From the second half of the 19th century onwards, important turning points of Istanbul's urban transportation services are seen as follows:
· In 1871 the first equestrian tram was run.
· In 1875, Tunel, which connects Galata with Beyoğlu, has started its services.
· The first bus in 1926 was put on the expedition.
· In 1939, transportation services have been expropriated by Law No. 3645 and connected to the newly established IETT General Directorate.
· In the 1963, trolleybuses started to work.
· In 1961, trams were withdrawn from service in Europe and 1966 on the Asian side.
· In 1991, the Tramway was re-run in the pedestrian zone of Beyoğlu.
Urban transport in Istanbul has been the subject of a very messy issue in various sources, but a systematic (systematic) library about transportation has not been established. In particular, urban transportation and IETT's history of Istanbul has not been transformed into a neat and satisfying source, and has not been published.
However; this study, which has been updated and enriched by combining private or public transportation literature so far; 127 is our main wish to provide regular information about the history of Istanbul transportation services carried out since the year and to be the source of original studies on the subject to be carried out after that.
In a cultural capital such as Istanbul, such works enable the city to meet the history of the city and to catch and follow the line that reinforces the historical consciousness. The truth of the city is structured with the consciousness of the people who have a deep understanding of it. One of the ways to become a citizen of this city is the monographs, institutions and business history, etc.
This study, which includes the history of Istanbul of the Tramway Administration, will be particularly meaningful for many people with a history of 40 years of age. Of the revived memories of many of them, by blowing their drums, trams with the fringing fringe passengers will once again flow.
In Istanbul, perhaps nothing has been integrated into the city and people as much as trams.
We are paying a hearted debt. 1939'dan 1966 until the year we run the trams, but not the last time, salute.
As mentioned above, the study is as rich as possible and therefore sources are cautiously cited for their future benefits. The unique work of Mr. Çelik Gülersoy, who has dedicated himself to İstanbul in particular, has been the source we have benefited the most with the richness of his content at Tramvay İstanbul (1992). We hope you will understand us because the issue is tram. Finally our goal is one:
Saving trams from oblivion.
In addition, we would like to thank to Mr. Ergün Arpaçay for his unrivaled love of Trolley in Istanbul with Milliyet Newspaper (1992) and to Mr. Onur Orhan for his unrivaled transportation history, to the officer and manager for his trolley workers and to the manager and all the employees. no limit.
Fehime Tunalı Çalışkan
TRAMWAY IN ISTANBUL
What is Tram?
Tram; It is a transport system on rails in the city, which initially consists of animal power and then electrical power vehicles (tow or motris wagons). In this dry, scientific definition, 150 in Istanbul enters a long history full of memories and associations of years.
First Trams in the World
The first example of the tram, which is the highest public transportation vehicle of the period, is the trams, the first in the world in the United States (New York) in 1842, as a French engineer named Loubant.
Loubant is a French engineer who finds the tram. Inspired by horse-drawn wagons mining the mines, M. Loubant went to the United States after failing to get the horse-drawn trolley he made in his country and not to have it in other European countries. And as mentioned above, Loubant's tram project was implemented on the streets of New York. After three years; Loubant's country, France, adopted the tram, and since the 1845, horse-drawn trams have begun to be seen on the streets of Paris. Then the competing country, London, the capital of England, 1860 trolley tram shows a great interest, has set up a tram business.
Electric trams were replaced by electric trolleys when electricity was introduced in time. 1881 began working in Berlin (Germany), 1883 in London (UK) and 1889 in Boston (USA).
ATLI TRAMS IN ISTANBUL
First Tram in the Ottoman Capital
Transportation to the Ottoman capital until 1860; at the sea, Istanbul
On the other hand, with the boats of the invention, and on the land, they were carried out by walking and horses, and later by the wood and ornamented cars of the ox and horses. Moving in Istanbul these vehicles 19. century was far from meeting the need.
The trams, which were first operated in Istanbul within the boundaries of the Ottoman Empire (called omnibus at that time), were later established in the other major cities of the Empire and operated in Thessaloniki, Damascus, Baghdad, Izmir and Konya, respectively.
Establishment of the Company in Istanbul
The first contract on the laz Tramway Facility and Construction in Dersaadet N for the establishment of the tramway system was held during the reign of Sultan Abdulaziz, 30 on August 1869. What is interesting is the lack of a company in the contract stage. According to the formula, the company (the company) will be established, on behalf of a company to be established, Karapano  * Efendi, the Minister of Public Works of the period will sign the agreement with Minister Nadir Bey; If the company is not established within a certain period of time, the contract will be null and void; but on the other hand, this contract signed by the Deputy Minister of Nafia will be approved by both the State Council and the Committee of Deputies (commitment in favor of the third party). (See Annex: Contracts).
In accordance with this contract, for the laying of railroads and carriages for the transportation of people and goods in the streets of Istanbul, Kumpanyaya (Dersaadet Tramway Company) was authorized by Xanthi Karapano Efendi for the 40 year.
N The Company-i Umumiye-i Osmaniye adet (Societe Generale Ottomane), Bank-ı Osmani (Ottoman Bank) and Monsieur Komondo and Hristaki Zoğrafos Efendi and Mösyö Zarifi and Konstantin Karafasto Efendi are also the founders of e Dersaadet Tramway Company Osman in the same year (1869 was established and put into operation. The founders of the company, which was founded and commissioned after the contract, were further from the Ottoman bank, R. Edwards (an Englishman who settled in Istanbul), G. Casanova Rally (Banker), DG Fernandey (Banker), R.Viterbe (Merchant-Company Manager), Demetrios Raspalli ( The capital of the company where the company was located, 20 gold Xinnum (Ottoman Lira) value of the 20,000 gold Lira, was the total amount of 400,000. The business license was given by Mehmet Kabuli Bey, who was the Minister of Trade and Agriculture of the period on behalf of the Ottoman Empire and who was acting as the Minister of Nafia.
Launch of the first tram in Istanbul, 27 year after the first tram in the world, 3 September 1869'da took place. The Ottoman state was the fourth country in equestrian tram management.
First Mounted Tramways, First Contract (1869)
With an additional document, the routes to be operated by Dersaadet Tramway Company and the 4 line to be opened were determined. (See Annex: Contracts). These;
· Azapkapısı- Galata- Fındıklı-Kabataş- Ortaköy
· Eminönü-Bab-ı Ali-Soğukçeşme- Divanyolu- Aksaray Yusuf Pasha
· Aksaray - Samatya- Yedikule
· Aksaray-Topkapısı, lines.
Starting from the date of the contract, the first and second lines were expected to be completed in 2 and the third and fourth lines in 4 years. The work for the construction of a horse-drawn tramway took two years. Karapano's company was in fact a Belgian company despite the shares of some local organizations.
For the land and structures to be cut or part of the trolley will be settled; If the owner did not accept the agreement despite the proposed fair price, the state would intervene and expropriate.
The company staff, the Ottoman rule was laid, but the key staff and the top managers were left open door to be foreign. In the event of accidents caused by the company's fault, the liability rule was introduced.
Şehremaneti (Municipality) would supervise the operation, in particular the road network, but the company would pay the costs. For this purpose, the 100 Ottoman Gold was given an advance. The company encountered various problems when it started laying the tracks. The construction of roads, the introduction of vehicles from abroad and other preparations took 2 years. The first tram was put into service at 1871. 430 pieces were purchased, some were brought from outside. Until then, the streets and streets of Istanbul were paved with cobblestone. This made it difficult to install the rails quickly. For this reason, upon the imposition of İstanbul Şehremini Servet Pasha, an article was put on the first contract. Accordingly, the company; It would take the construction and repair of the pavements while laying the tram rails on the roads opened by Şehremaneti. Thus, the main streets of the city, old and crooked cobblestone pavements, such as the first lines, Tophane-Beşiktaş, were completely removed and covered with paving stones. In particular, the road from the bridge to the Bab-i Ali (government road), the road from Azapkapısı to Tophane (Müşirliğe), the curb edges of the hard border stone, was laid with cut stone.
According to the first contract; separate wagons were envisaged for women, while mixed cars adopted separate sections with curtains. The passenger would be able to carry free goods until 10 okkaya (1 Okka = 1283 gr) and pay the higher price. At least 20 stops will be made for the passenger and one stop at each stop. Apart from the stops, passenger loading and unloading at each desired location was mandatory. This rule was removed with electric trams (1911). The service starts with the sunrise (Tülu-u Şems) and ends at 24 at night. Study tariffs in newspapers and stops; It would be announced in Turkish, Greek, Armenian and Jewish languages. At the end of the concession period, the enterprise would be transferred to the state and the 20 would lose the Company's right for the day-out line.
First of all, three lines of rail were installed and opened for operation.
· Galata - Tophane - Beşiktaş - Ortaköy
· Eminönü -Sirkeci - Divanyolu - Beyazit - Aksaray - Topkapi
· Aksaray - Samatya - Yedikule
Atlı Tramway Management
Apart from the wealthy owners who had a horse-drawn car in Istanbul at that time, the residents of İstanbul were walking on their way. For this reason, the use of the trams drawn by the horses in the 1871 in the above-mentioned routes attracted great interest.
In the beginning, passengers were getting down and going where they wanted, but because the trams stopped in the places where each passenger wanted, it was very time-consuming to place certain her compulsory bin and de discretionary ist stops at certain locations along the route. Cars were forced to stop at mandatory stops. In the optional stops, there were cars when the passengers were going to land at the stop. Initially, these trams were operated on a single line, in order to avoid confrontation in certain places. The previous tram crossed this line to the side and waited for the tram on the opposite side, and then he could go back and forth after the passing. Passengers made very long wait on the passage of the scissors and the lines were transformed into even lines and the departure routes were separated. However, where the road width does not allow (for example, the way to Haseki Hospital), there is only one line. The horse-drawn tramcar wagons were brought from Belgium, while the large ferrules towing vehicles were brought from Hungary. At the beginning of the slope, the horses were changed in small stables and the speed was not reduced.
Istanbul, unfortunately, was not as flat as in most other European cities. Since the Azapkapısı-Ortaköy (Baby) line was flat, the horses were not difficult at all. For this reason, like the omnibuses in England, two-storey wagons could be put into operation on this even more initial launch. It was very splendid to write on the upper floor. But on the other tram lines the road was bumpy. Horses had a hard time pulling heavy wagons.
The number of horses according to the steepness of the slope was increased to 2, even to 4.
There were three important officers on these horse-drawn trams. These were the patriarch, the ticket-maker and the lawyer. Vatman was the driver, while the truck was usually chosen from the people running well and running in front of the tram, from time to time by playing the pipe, "varda" he called, warned the public, led to the tram that led to the public. The Vardaists were more likely to be chosen among the torturers and bullies. They were dressed in boots, panty pants, long jackets and fezli costumes. The word Varda was formed by the deterioration of the Italian guarda. Vardacıların, horses had to run faster.
In the course of time, the Varanists were liquidated due to the shortage of resources and the duty of the Vardais was welcomed by rattles and cymbals mounted on the horses' neck.
The driver was called a snitch. The handler with a long whip in the front row of horse in front of the horse's ear whip snickers, "hayda" he called out. These whips and many molded fezes fly in the weather, even a woman who has lost one of the eyes is mentioned. Tram cars were divided into two as summer and winter. Winter cars were closed. Passengers traveled side-by-side from the front of the windows to the reclining rows. The side cars were open and the seats were like school benches. The wagons did not have doors and parades in the middle of the place. The steps along the two sides were mounted and descended. The ticket makers used to travel on these steps. Initially, private cars were allocated for women. Male passengers and female passengers could not ride in the same car. Women used to ride on special cars that were reserved for each line. However, it was seen that this practice was very costly and caused disruption in flights. As mentioned before, women's trams were abandoned and the front part of all the cars were separated by a red curtain.
In this way, haremlik greetings were created in trams and men and women traveled separately. The gap between the blinds and the big boys traveling with women led to interesting controversy. In the novels of the great writer Hüseyin rahmi Gürpınar (Şıpsevdi), there are fun pages about this.
After the Republic, haremlik-selamlik application on trams has been abolished.
The fare on the first trams was expensive compared to its time. 60 okka (1.5 okka = 1 gr.) Bread or 1283 okka olives, 1 okka onion, 3 okka charcoal, 6 daily newspaper, 6 package tobacco is purchased. Over time travel costs have been reduced.
Yellow-painted Horse-mounted Trams are usually pulled by two horses, and in slopes, cars are tied with two horses as spare. Therefore, in the early part of the slope were built small stables for spare horses. Reinforcements horses at the end of the slope of the plain, the places were resolved and taken back to the barn. It is known that there are horse stables at Alemdar Street at the beginning of the Divanyolu slope at the Bankalar Street, at the beginning of the Şişhane slope.
The stall waiting in the stables, the spare horse runs into the wagon, but then goes to the flat in order to bring him back to the barn, he sits next to the driver; When the slope was over, he would ride on his horse and go back to the stable. The trip doesn't always look healthy, often on slopes, horseback trams would back up back and lead to dramatic scenes. The horses that were carefully selected during the establishment of the company were beautiful and majestic Hungarian and Austrian cups and they were very well cared for. However, they soon became useless because of the fact that they were caring for maintenance work and were overloaded. Significant decreases in tram speeds were observed as the new horse was not towed. Accordingly, criticism of the use of horse trams as not suitable for Istanbul began to be expressed in the daily life of those days. Istanbullunun transportation preference, was still walking. Paying money for transportation to most Istanbulites was also worthwhile.
, According to the information we received about the trips and travels of the trams, with the arrival of the tram horses, these reeds are firstly assigned to the Şişli line and after they have been served there for three years, they are transferred to Azapkapısı and run there for a period of two years. in the history of the history of Samatya also found the accusation. If there are exceptionally exceptional people who come to life in tul-i life, they are handed over to the donkeymen who are teberrük, and they are walking around the street inde ler Ahmet RASİM
By the way, after another 12 annual operation experience of the business permit of the Dersaadet Tramway Company, 28 signed another contract signed in July 1881 (see Annex: Contracts) while the 36 year was extended by 6 months, while the contract agreed with the additional document;
· Galata Voyvoda Street - Kabristan Street (Today's Tepebaşı Square) - Büyük Cadde - Taksim - Pangaltı - Şişli,
· Eminönü - Balıkpazarı - Odunkapısı - Cibali - Fener - Balat -Eyüp,
· From the point of the first line to be determined by Tatavla (Salvation),
The second line has never occurred.
An innovation that comes with this contract is that the cost of the trip is tied to the distance (up to a thousand meters). In addition, if the profit exceeds% 15, lowering the transportation fees and putting a complaint book in the stops are interesting items.
In the same year, tram lines were laid for Galata, Tepebaşı and İstiklal Avenue.
The composition of the partners of the Tram Company is changing and the Galata Bankers are gradually replaced by other foreigners. During this period, among the shareholders, the famous Jewish lawyer of the business world, Maitre Salem, is located. The company is good with the government and Sultan Hamid. In November 31 1907 (see Annex: Contract), the concession period has been increased to 75 year, as well as the construction and operation of some new lines.
1 of the contract. According to the article;
· From Beyazit to Fatih and Edirnekapı via Şehzadebaşı,
· From Galatasaray to Tunel,
· From Pangalti to Tatavla (Salvation),
· From Eyup to Eminönü,
· From Unkapanı to Fatih via Vefa,
· From Ortaköy to Kuruçeşme and Bebek,
three lines would open.
5 for others, 10 for others, was given for the time.
500 m. provided that the Government would give concessions to other persons and organizations. Customs exemption was provided for the material required for construction, and the company was granted the authority to issue bonds for domestic borrowing.
The horse-drawn tramway line was extended in 1911 to Kurtuluş and Şişli.
There was a great deal of pressure on the Company and the Government for the operation of electric trams operated in Europe in Istanbul during these years. Especially the foreign colony, Louis Rambert, the general manager of the Tobacco Regime, was very enthusiastic. The biggest complaint was the stables, horse and manure, which were set up on the road tops for horse-drawn trams. For all these reasons, the contract (1907) 11. The agent; I In the future, if trolley cars are ordered to be operated by the power plant, ın ın was added.
Dersaadet Tramway Company, in the first year of operation 4.5 has carried the passenger close to the million, 53.000 Lira had provided income. The company's 430 horse-mounted fleet fleet consisted of 100 cars. Some of these cars had open seats. These were two-storey wagons. They were the cause of intense interest.
The company established tram depots in Aksaray, Beşiktaş, Tatavla and Şişli. In these warehouses, there were carpenters in the barns where horses were sheltered and the tram cars were repaired.
ACCURATE TO ELECTRIC TRAININGS
The first electric tram in Istanbul was operated 33 year after the first electric tram in the world. Istanbul has been considerably delayed on electric trams according to the tramlines. 1881 1883 year in 1889 33 1881 36 1907 75 1908 XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX in the hands of this right in the hands even though it does not want to spend money on the electric trolley in the hands of a reason why the Ottoman throne in the Ottoman Empire. Sultan Abdülhamid is said to have a great fear of electricity and electricity. Since the operation permit of Dersaadet Tramway Company has been renewed for a period of time, there has been no attempt for electric tram until XNUMX.
In 1910, the Ottoman Government granted an annual concession to the Ganz Joint Stock Companies located in Pest, Hungary. In 50, “Osmanlı Anonim Elektrik Şirketi X was established. Now there was a source of electricity for the trams. In the same year, the contract for the electric operation of the Tram Company's wagons is signed. But there is a roughness. With the 1911 contract, the possibility of using electric power to the trams; British-based Tünel Company objected to the fact that it has the right to operate electric vehicles and claims that they will seek compensation. The Tramway Company won the discussion, two companies agreed, and the Tunnel Company bought the Tramways to be paid to 1907 pounds, and with a% 95,000 interest rate. Thus, in January of 5, since the Tunnel Line was transferred to the Tram Company, the 1910 Convention could be signed and the tram was connected to the electricity.
In 1912, with the emergence of the Balkan War, the Government purchased all horses of the Dersaadet Tramway Company for 30,000 Gold Liria. This, in the unlikely situation, Istanbul people remained trampled for a year. And the period of horse-drawn trams ended with the Balkan War.
On the other hand, despite the removal of the routes even on the double, the efficiency decline could not be prevented. Because the carrying power of the 430 horse was useless due to the lack of care and fatigue of the animals.
On the same dates (21 November 1911), the decision on İst Power to Power in Dersaadet Tramway Company,, the government envisaged the licensing of electric energy in tram cars across the network. Electrified by this contract, the tram company was obliged to build factories, to buy electricity, to approve the price to the Nafia Ministry, to lay a double line to the Karaköy bridge, and to remove the old roads to 15 (1 = 68 cm).
The materials to be brought from foreign countries for the facilities, real estate, land, revenues, stocks and bonds of the company; stamp and pictures were immune. In addition, with the same date document added to the contract, the construction of the electrical facilities will start in the 6 month and will be completed within the 24 month at the latest.
On electric trolleys, the necessary electricity or a collector located above the trolley was obtained from the gap between the rails by means of a pantograph search or a device attached to the bottom of the trolley. When the electricity was taken from the air line, the circuit was completed with rails. However, when the electricity is taken from the underground, the wires are arranged both positive and negative. The tram motors also operated the rheostatic brake. The tram rails could be laid either in the middle of the road or buried in the ground. In both cases, they could move along with general traffic. Recently, the trams were separated from the general traffic and taken to a special road where the surrounding area was preserved.
First Electric Tram
For the first time in the Ottoman Empire, the first electric trolleys were tested in Damascus. This was possible with the continuous pressures made to the Dersaadet Tram Company. However, Atlı Tramways started to be operated first in Istanbul and then in other cities of the Empire: Damascus, Baghdad, Izmir and Konya.
In the 1913, Dersaadet Tramway Company accepted the operation of the Istanbul Tramways and started to work and this study lasted until February of 1914. February 1914'da Istanbul 's first electric trolley with a great ceremony began on the Karaköy-Ortakoy line. Therefore, a great ceremony was held in Karaköy; After the prayers and the sacrifices read, Şehremini Bedreddin Bey gave a speech and wished the electric trams would be beneficial to Istanbul.
The ceremonial photo taken that day was published in Paris in I'llustration, 7 published in February. The proceeds of that day were left to the Navy Society.
In the same year, the wooden Galata Bridge was restored for the fourth time, iron was provided to pass through the trams.
Dersaadet Tramway Company has increased its capital 35,531.- Liraya by collecting 2.5 from the 266,482 shareholder for taking the overhead lines, supplying the necessary materials, making the facilities and taking the motor wagons (motris). In the meantime, the first electric tram 20 February 1914 Day in Tophane was put into service on Karaköy - Ortaköy route as mentioned above. With the operation of the electric trolley, the first tramway operation on the Galata Bridge was an excitement for Istanbulites. Certain ceremonies were held here because of the laying of the line and the opening of the bridge to the tram. After the tram crossing over the Galata Bridge, the 1 dık Bridge of Murder Picture ü was added to the tram tickets. Trams were crossed over the Galata Bridge and connected to the city's Istanbul and Beyoğlu side at 1914. With the electricity produced by an electric factory established in Kabataş, trams began to carry passengers. Wide range rails of the tramways were narrowed in order to operate the electric trams. As in the first run of the tunnel; electric trams were also met with uneasiness. They worked with very few passengers for a while. In the end, Istanbulites started to benefit from the innovations of the era by accepting electricity and tram. For the day, a modern transportation facility was created with trams which were fast, convenient, cheap and reliable for Istanbul. Therefore, more and more passengers were moved. The electric tram operation was extended to the entire city by the launch of the Silahtaraga electric factory. Meanwhile, the Ortaköy line was extended to Bebek.
28 In May 1912, with another contract added to the 1911 contract, the company accepted the construction of the new line 5. (See Annex: Contracts).
· Aksaray - Silivrikapisi
· Eminönü - A new addition to the main line passing through Bahçekapısı Police Station
· Taksim - Dolmabahçe
· Harbiye - Maçka
· Feriköy - Kasımpaşa - Azapkapısı
11 In January 1913 was cut off the electric current with the order of the government, 14 February 1914 was issued with a contract on the tram network current.
The start of World War I made the construction and expansion of lines difficult. I even stopped for a month transportation 8 months. The war years were often the period of the company's recession. 100 cars were ordered from Europe, but the number of 5 cars was broken, roads were distorted due to military transportation, material shortages, expensive and lack of personnel affected the financial situation of the company.
Intuitive developments in the Republic of Dersaadet Tramway Company, as a result of the efforts of the period of Haydar Bey, the Government of Ankara, 17 has made an agreement in June 1923. Accordingly, a commission consisting of nafia, municipality and company representatives was established to meet every three months for the determination of tariffs, payment of wages of company personnel and so on. In addition, the company capital was doubled as needed, 1 January 1923 '1.25' 1 '1924' and 3.5 'XNUMX' XNUMX 'XNUMX' XNUMX 'as the allocation of% XNUMX'in all staff within six months was envisaged.
In return, the Company would increase its capital from 50 to 85,533, and raise its capital to 1,454,027.- Liras.
While the foreign capital and minority capital were rapidly replaced by Turkish capitalists, the Tram Company was able to maintain its status for a long time, until the beginning of the 2 World War.
In 1923, the company's general outlook was: 12 on line 210 car (141 motris, 69 trailer) was serving. 1699 staff at the company; The average 210 car expedition on the day, 10.4 million km per year. 55.5 million pounds, 2.3 million pounds of revenue were generated, 1.9 million pounds were spent and 413 thousand pounds (2) was provided. Km. 0.784 million kWa per year via 6.5 kWa was used in passenger transportation.
Dersaadet Tramway Company has made a new contract with the Ankara Government on 21 July 1926. According to this contract;
· Tram lines will be opened to other parts of the city,
· Production of 7.5 meter wide section of new lines, 10 meter wide section of new lines and 15 meter wide sections of old lines will be continuously maintained and repaired by the Company,
· For the expropriation of new lines, 250,000.- TL to the Company Municipality. The municipality will provide, but only in the 100,000.- TL, 10 annually, annually 10,000.- TL. will pay over,
· In order to increase the number of vehicles in the city, the 4 bus would be run as a trial, provided that the privilege was not continuous.
27 The company's capital was increased to 1926 million Swiss francs with a new additional contract on 27 on July 8. With this contract, the new tram lines of Dersaadet Tramway Company will be listed as follows:
First Degree Lines
· Unkapanı - Şehzadebaşı
· Unkapanı - Eyüp
· Fatih - Edirnekapisi
Second Degree Lines
· Azapkapısı (Side of Karaköy) -
· Kasimpasa Surp Agop (Taksim side)
· Taksim - Dolmabahçe
Discretionary Lines (Company left)
· Aksaray - Silivrikapisi
· Maçka - Beşiktaş
· Şehzadebaşı - Yenikapı
· Kasımpaşa - Sütlüce
· Continue to Bebek from Bosphorus
· Kasımpaşa - Yenişehir - Feriköy
The company has not fulfilled its commitment to open the line with various excuses, raised more money for the works it did as a result of the contract and did not start despite the 8 year. By omitting the date order, the contract is not made by the company; The 1923 contract was revoked by the Ministry of Public Works and the 8 was withdrawn from the public throughout the year for the construction and expropriation of the 1 million 700 thousand TL İstanbul streets.
TRAMVAY AT THE ANATOLIAN SIDE
The first works on the operation of the tram in the Asian side of Istanbul were launched in 1927. First, however, the Üsküdar-Bağlarbaşı X Kısıklı line was put into service at 1928. A year later, Bağlarbaşı-Haydarpaşa and Üsküdar-Haydarpaşa lines; After the business profit, Bostancı, Moda, Feneryolu lines were opened. The Anatolian side of the business with the permission of the Municipality of Üsküdar and Havalisi Halk Tramvaylar TAŞ. It undertook. The Üsküdar and Havalisi Trams Company was formed with the initiative of the Foundation and the participation of the people of the environment. Later, Istanbul Municipality acquired the shares of the Foundations Administration and acquired the company's 90.
2 July 1928 on the date of the agreement signed between the Attorney Recep Recep and İstanbul Şehremini Hamit Beyefendiler, Üsküdar, Kadikoy and Beykoz and Anatolian Lighthouse in the area until the right to run the tram, Üsküdar and Havalisi Public Trolleys Company was given. According to the contract:
· The concession network shall include the area up to Beykoz and Anadolu Fener with Üsküdar - Kadıköy internal and external.
· The city received this privilege Üsküdar-Kısıklı-Alemdağ'ı Halk Tramvayları TAŞ. ' what will be transferred.
· Uskudar - Haydarpasa; Karacaahmet - Bağlarbaşı; Haydarpaşa - Kadıköy; Kadıköy - Kızıltoprak - Feneryolu; Kadikoy - Fashion lines will be compulsory within 5 year after the contract date.
· Apart from these lines; Cj-Gazhane; Feneryolu - Fenerbahce; Feneryolu - Bostancı; Uskudar - Beykoz; Kadıköy - Acıbadem - K.Çamlıca; Gazhane-Merdivenköyü with its lines; Merdivenköyü - Erenköyü - Caddebostan; Bostancı - İçerenköyü; Beykoz - Anadolu lighthouse; Merdivenköyü - Sıraselviler - Libade - Kısıklı iltisah line,
can be done voluntarily.
8 June 1928 on the Anatolian coast Friday morning Üsküdar-Bağlarbaşı-Kisik line was opened to the operation was mentioned above. However, because of the narrow line and inefficient condition, the operating company is in a difficult position. In the following year (1929), Bağlarbaşı and Haydarpaşa lines were completed and put into service.
While the company is expanding the network, Üsküdar - Haydarpaşa (Line No: 10); Bağlarbaşı - Karacaahmet ordered the materials of the lines.
These two lines were put into operation on 13 July 1929 and the length of the tram network had found 10.5 km.
When the narrow and inefficient situation of Üsküdar - Kısıklı line was found, the Company could not continue to exist, and the improvement of the network was resorted to. According to this;
Üsküdar - Haydarpaşa - Kadıköy line had to be constructed and operated. However, Üsküdar - Kadıköy internal and external tram lines were not granted concession.
According to the agreement signed by Emin Ali Beyfendiler, Chairman of the Board of Directors of İstanbul Şehremini Muhiddin and on behalf of the Company, on the date of 15 March 1929;
· Tram concession and installation is done in accordance with the provisions of 31 August 1927 dated between City and Evkaf and with the cost of 492.970.-TL obtained from Evkaf, Üsküdar - Kısıklı - Alemdağı Halk Tramvayları TAŞ. 8 has been transferred to the Company since the date of June 1928.
· 1928.-TL has committed to provide 100.000.-TL until 1933 every year since 500.000.
· Company; prior to the establishment of the company, 16.500.-TL, including 150,000.-TL, which the city paid the head of the house to make the line work, has agreed to give shares to the city every year with its 100.000.-TL account with the 500.000.-TL account.
TRAMWAY NETWORK IS GROWING
In 1929, Fatih-Edirnekapı line was commissioned on the Istanbul coast, and in the same year, the Bağlarbaşı and Haydarpaşa lines on the Asian side were completed. After the company canceled the first two lines, tram lines were extended to Moda, Fenerbahçe, Bostancı and Hasanpaşa directions in the following years. In the beginning, there was no stop on the Anatolian side. Over time, as a result of the increase of mansions, some points were selected as stops. Üsküdar and Havalisi Folk Trolleys Company's tram cars were different from the Istanbul side. The doors were sliding and in the middle. Üsküdar trams were now in service at the IETT workshop in Bağlarbaşı.
While these developments continued on the Anatolian side, Tramway Company was also operating on the Istanbul coast. 170 from the 120 tram of the Şişli depot every day, 70 from the 50 tram of the Beşiktaş store, and the 80 from the 60 tramway of the Aksaray store were on service.
The total line length of this tram company in 30 is 34 km. and there was an 320 tram. During the same period, the Anatolian side of Üsküdar X Kısıklı, Üsküdar-Bağlarbaşı-Haydarpaşa-Üsküdar-Doğancılar- Haydarpaşa and Bağlarbaşı-Haydar-paşa line, the 4 tram was running and the total 24 tram was serving the 16. Total line length 10.7 km. ' I y.
Text Box: Republic of the proclamation 10. Certain ceremonies were to be held in Istanbul as in the whole country due to the year. 29 A week before October, President Atatürk's order is forwarded to Istanbul Tram Company. 29 October 1933 On Sunday, all trams and buses of Istanbul will be serviced. This order was fulfilled as a result of the conscious and disciplined work of the workers in the warehouse. On that day, all the trams in the workshop were repaired. Thus, in the history of Istanbul Public Transport, there has been a situation that cannot be easily realized and 320 bus which is in the warehouses and 4 buses have been given to the service of the Istanbulites. Presumably the service with the capacity of% 100 was realized for the first time in Istanbul among the world public transportation companies. From the memories of Şişli Warehouse Manager Hilmi YAMAN (1933)
In the 1930, the Istanbul Tram Company
The 22 line include:
Bağlarbaşı-Karacaahmet-Haydarpaşa line on the Anatolian Side was established in 1930 in the place of Üsküdar-Bağlarbaşı-Haydarpaşa and Üsküdar-Doğancılar-Karacaahmet lines. After the construction of the tram services, buses from the truck were frequently seen on the tram network and the Üsküdar network of 1550 meters was converted into double lines.
While the centers were built in order to provide electricity from the city more economically than the old diesel engines, in addition to the 150,000. However, the debt that the company agreed to pay to foundations could not be paid due to financial difficulties.
30 On June 1931 According to the principles of the agreement signed between the Municipality of Istanbul and Necmeddin Sahir Beyefendi and the Director of Evkaf General Manager Rüştü Beyefendi on behalf of the Company, the General Directorate of Foundations of Evkaf General Directorate;
· Transfer of land owned by the Municipality of Istanbul by 9 1925 31 1927 15 dated March 1929 and transfer to the Company by XNUMX dated March XNUMX and transfer of land and buildings, tools, installations, factories and garages to the Company.
· Obligation to remove the amount of 468,220.-Lira 250.000.-Lira which is the amount of 5.-Lira from the Company's shares in the amount of 50.000.-Lira.
· The 22 issued by the Turkish Grand National Assembly was approved by June 1931 and 1831. Also;
· The municipality will pay 468.220.-TL for the rest of 218.220.-TL from the beginning of 1931 fiscal year to the end of 1942 as of June.
· The company; He will accept mortgages for real estate in return for his evkaf.
Thus, the majority of the shares of the tram operation, the Üsküdar-Kadıköy and the most popular shares of the Municipality of Halk Trams TAŞ. what was given.
As we approached the end of the 1930s, the process of liquidation of the Dersaadet Tramway Company, which is connected to the same center as the electricity company, was entered on the Istanbul coast. In 1938, the last year of operation of the company, as a result of public transportation with 177 tram, including 83 motris and 260 trailers; 15,356,364 km. The 73,039,303.-TL of the revenue collected was used at the cost of the 2,385,129 passenger transported by trip and 27,821.- TL. profit was obtained. In trams, 12,909,840 Kwh electrical energy is consumed in exchange for this service.
Towards the end of the 1930, the efficiency of the Dersaadet Tramway Company began to decline. The provisions of his agreement in 1926 had not been fulfilled for a long time. In the end, the Ministry of Nafia annulled the 1926 treaty and announced that the conditions of 1923 are valid (as mentioned above). 1,700,000.- TL was withdrawn from the company for the construction of the streets of Istanbul (see Appendix: The Law on Allocation of the money received from the Istanbul Tram Company for the Reconstruction of the City of Istanbul, 17 January 1938). A purely arbitrary policy was intended to hold only the operating rights for a long time. Upon the determination of this situation by the Turkish Government, works were initiated for the liquidation of the Tram Company together with the Electricity Company.
1938 motto and 177 trailer tramway were serviced daily in the last year of operation at the 83. 980,000 voyages were made with these services annually. The energy he spent was finding 12,909,804 Kwh. 2,412,949.- TL. ' 2,385,128.- TL. and the company has made a profit of 27,821.- TL. These numbers show that there has not been any significant change in the profile of Istanbul (economic and demographic) for 15 years.
A new contract was signed between Ankara Government and Istanbul Tram Company. All facilities were purchased from 1 January 1939 and were delivered to İstanbul Municipality. The first reconstruction movement in Istanbul went parallel with the confiscation of the Tram. Because the government (Inonu Government) hoped to provide some of the necessary resources for reconstruction from the tram operation it would nationalize.
As a result of this purchase, the company would pay 13 TL for 1,560,000 per year. The business had first been to the government. Then (after 6 month) 12 June 1939 date and 3642 with the date of the transfer of the tram business became definite, established by the Law No. 3645 Istanbul Electric Tramway and Tunnel Operations General Directorate took the role of the Municipality for this task.
Trams in battle
Towards the end of 1939 where IETT was founded, II. The start of World War II,
Istanbul has caused problems in urban transportation. Except for the tunnel, almost the only means of transportation was tram. The long duration of the war, the lack of gasoline and tires required for the wheeled vehicles, increased the load on the trolleys by a further increase. Trams, bandages, rail, scissors, copper wire, etc. In spite of their material problems, they continued their services successfully. The trolley was hardly affected by the electricity and the war and fuel shortages. II. While all the negative aspects of World War II were reflected in every section of life, the tram was the only exception. We cannot pass an interesting incident here. During the war years, the trams also m blacked out Savaş. The round glass of the two bulbs in front of the tram, the rectangular small glass at the edge of the ceiling was painted with dark blue paint. The large windows were closing the curtains. In addition, the bulb that illuminated the sign also changed color. This was the only change that the war brought to the trams in Istanbul.
The trams that matched the blackout, worked like this until the end of the war. In the beginning, although the passenger was initially outdated, he got used to it. Those who saw the blue light in front of the tram in the distance "coming," he made the move towards the road. The signboard wasn't read, but it wasn't a problem.
Text Box: LAW ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF XETUM 3645 ARTICLE 2: The administrations transferred to the Istanbul Municipality by this Law shall be managed by the General Directorate under the name of T Istanbul General Directorate of Electricity, Tramway and Tunnel Operations la and the Head of Istanbul Municipality. ARTICLE 3: The duties of the Directorate of General Affairs: a. The interests that have been transferred to it shall be resigned and executed. b to regulate, repair, amend and extend the electrical installation and electric tramway network and tunnel installation in accordance with the needs of the Istanbul Rumelia and Anatolian sides and the islands in order to provide electricity power, and to carry out real estate, expropriation and endowment activities in all operations and undertakings. If there is a need to find the trolleybus and bus services to create and reinforce the issue is to reinforce.
Since spare parts were not available, some of the cars, trucks and buses were towed into the garages. There were shortages of urban public transportation provided by a small number of buses. Car owners were faced with the problem of finding replacement parts other than fuel. However, the trams were outside these problems. The trolleys that appeared to be very rare. After the maintenance of the warehouse, they continued their flights for a long time. Spare parts for trams were less than buses or cars. On the other hand, since most of the models were the same, they had the possibility to transfer material to each other. In fact, apart from the parts in the electric motor, it was possible to produce the others in the workshops in Istanbul. IETT's Şişli Warehouse was very successful in this regard.
However, since the post-war Europe did not produce spare parts after the 1946, the operation of the tramway started. Most of the trolley cars were 33-age, they were inadequate for the increasing urban population, the rails were worn out. The decision to reduce tram speeds was implemented in order to prevent the rails from becoming more worn. In the meantime, the press had increased the criticism. Among these numerous examples, we can give the following 2 example:
Even as they run down the narrow street in the evening,
Trams on the road are like turtles.
Everywhere there is his saga,
Yesterday we came to the tomb in ten minutes from Beyazit.
In Tram company of the people of Istanbul
is not yet accepted. Us
lumber, sack, sawdust or gas crate,
he thinks of something as irrelevant, insensitive and lifeless lam
Server Bedi (Peyami Safa)
Finally the 30 km from America and Belgium. The rails were replaced, bringing the rail up. In the 1946-1947 years, a project was prepared for the removal of the tunnel operation and for the trams to land in Karaköy from the tunnel. According to the project, it was envisaged that the buildings in the Karaköy exit of the tunnel would be demolished to the sea. This meant a very high cost, so the project was abandoned.
1939 by 258 tram per day, 15.3 million km per year. As 78.4 million passengers are transported, the 1950 tram goes out every day in 267 and 14.1 million miles per year. 97.5 million passengers were transported. These figures had fallen below 1939 in the war years.
A closer look at some tram lines in the 1950 shows that there are always two wagons on the tram line going to Topkapı. The attractive motive in front is sometimes red and sometimes green. Red would be the first, green second-position tram. Ticket prices were different. The first-class car seats were made of leather and soft. In the second position the seats were full and hard. The tram line, which was double in all parts of the city, was transformed into a single line on the present day in this street. Because the street width was not suitable for laying the tram line.
Old Istanbul houses with wood, bay windows were being inserted into the tram line in a part of the road. Five ten bulbs on the top of a pole beside the stop were either on or off, indicating whether or not a tram was coming. Aksaray came from the station before moving from the patrol to look at these lamps. If there was a tram arriving by the invisible, he would wait for his arrival. In older years, large and large mirrors were used instead of lamps. Topkapi finish tram lines in Pazartekke, the end of the expedition was the point indicating. Here, the ticket-taker would pick up the ticket box and start to unscrew the mirror on the right-hand side of the door on the right-hand side of the gate. When he removed the mirror that passengers control the passengers at the stops, he went to the back, and he had screwed up the mirror on the right side of the divan area. This was a little bit of preparation next time. Another task of the ticket-taker was to turn the seats into the direction of the tram. Seats were not fixed.
Beyazıt Square has a special place in the history of the trams. It was where some of the trams running in various districts of Istanbul passed. The trams around the magnificent pool on the square gave a separate view here.
There was no more than the walls for the trams. In those years, the inner city boundary of Istanbul started from Ayvansaray and the city walls from Edirnekapı, Topkapı, Mevlanakapı to Yedikule were drawn. Beyond the city walls was urban. It would be very secluded.
The city's Beyoğlu side of the trams adorned. From Beyazıt, from Sirkeci to Maçka, from Aksaray, from Fatih to Harbiye, from Tunnel to Şişli, from Sirkeci to Mecidiyeköy, from Eminönü to Kurtuluş was running a tram. The tram on these routes passed through Istiklal Street, inside the entertainment center of Istanbul, Beyoglu. After passing around Taksim Square in the Harbiye, Maçka, Kurtuluş, Şişli and Mecidiyeköy. Mecidiyeköy was the last stop of the trams in Beyoğlu. Trams stopped just behind the Ali Sami Yen Stadium in front of the IETT Department of Vehicles, which was demolished today. More and more gardens, mulberry gardens were located.
An important historical event in which the trams of Beyoğlu District have taken part in and witnessed are events of 6-7 September. Top cloths of Beyoğlu stores, which were looted, were attached to the back of the trams and the trams did not work until the center was cleared. Today, the old homeland of the Nostalgic Tram, which operates in Beyoglu, excitedly describing the images they witnessed and witnessed in those days.
The only line running to the Bosphorus was the Eminonu-Bebek line. Trams of this line were different from the others. The three-wagon tram would not work in any district of Istanbul. However, between Eminönü-Bebek, three trams made trams. This is because; The road from Eminönü to Bebek was described as being flat, no slopes, or a multitude of passengers.
Besiktas-Ortaköy, the fastest way to go trams. Trams passing ”like wind lar from the ruins of Çırağan Palace stopped at the honor stadium. This posture would usually be match days. The next section of the line from Ortakoy trams. In Arnavutköy, it stretches parallel to the sea. Here, sometimes, a race between trams and city-line ferries would begin. The bell bell of the tram, the whistle's whistle were the most obvious signs of the short race. But the winner of the race was unclear. In some parts of the road between the sea and the tram line, the buildings enter, sometimes the ferry to the pier or change the course of the race, the finish of the race was unknown. The waves of baby trams would wet the waves exploding on land. Cape Cape was known as a place that shook their homeland in the winter. Parents who worked in the baby line were affected by the wind blowing from the Bosphorus while passing through Akıntı Burnu and Arnavutköy. According to the patriarchs, three coldest places in Istanbul in winter; Arnavutköy was on the bridge and Saraçhanebaşıydı. For this reason, they wanted to pass very fast.
If we take a look at the Anatolian Side trams briefly, we see that the tram models and their colors are different. Yellow, purple, blue, green painted trams worked in Kadikoy. They were very different from the trams running in other parts of the city. This difference from the gates to the seats until each side revealed. The ride was more comfortable. He had few jaws.
The center of the trams on the Anatolian Side was Kadıköy. All lines started from here. The first stops of the trams lined along the beach were under the trees at the exit of the pier. Those who would go to Moda, Fenerbahçe, Bostancı, Üsküdar, Kısıklı and Haydarpaşa would wait at this station. The first line was the Kadıköy-Moda line. The tram line from Altıyol to Moda was dismantled.
Kalamış, Fenerbahce, Goztepe, Erenköyü, Caddebostanı, Suadiye and Bostancı were the summer districts of Istanbul. Tramways departing from Kadikoy from Altiyol and Kurbağalıdere Bridge pass through. After passing in front of Fenerbahce Stadium, they reached the Kızıltoprak stop. Lesser than Kızıltoprak, there was another stop called Depo. The tram line was divided into two. Bostanci tram towards the trams, Fenerbahce trams stuck to Kalamış Street.
Bostanci worked on the tram number 4. Kadikoy-Bostanci tram, which consists of two wagons, would have a first car at the front and a second at the rear. Trams passed through Bagdat Street. The line was furnished on both sides of the road, and other vehicles would go away. Bostancı, following the road to Kızıltoprak-Göztepe-Suadiye, descended from the slope after passing the tram over the train bridge. The end of the slope was Bostancı Square. The tram, which was curled in front of the street leading to the pier, passed to the station by the historical fountain.
The transportation between Kadıköy and Üsküdar was provided by tram. That would even work the car with 12. He left Kadıköy, left Selimiye from Çayırbaşı and then left behind the burial of Karacaahmet and came to Tunusbag. Then he would return from Ahmediye to Üsküdar. . Do you have to land in Karacaahmet? Ecek
The tramway was separated from the scissor in Selimiye. He also passed through the cemeteries Bağlarbaşı'na. The last stop was Kısıklı. Those who came to Çamlıca Hill on the picnic used this line. Another line was the Kadıköy-Hasanpaşa line. He would return from Gazhane, a gas distribution plant.
The tram, which was curled in front of the street leading to the pier, passed by the fountain and came to the station. Durak was at the end of the road from Altintepe, under the train bridge, and united with Bostanci. For a new voyage, the tram from Bostancı to Kadıköy went on the other side of the road.
LETTERS AFTER 1950
40'li years passed, the kingdom of the kingdom 'motor vehicle and asphalt' was sitting in the duo. Ray and the wagon were considered 'tapon, outdated and fusty'. Therefore, Turkey Nihat Erim also come to the Ministry of Public Works in the first 1947 'highway' policy; when it approved its importation with its staff, the end of this decision would touch the trams of Istanbul.
As a matter of fact, as in the history of Turkey, the beginning of 1950 was the beginning of a new era in the history of public transport. With the transition to the multi-party system, Istanbul would take its share of the changes in the central government. Great zoning movements and expropriations were initiated in the city. The buildings were being demolished, the streets were being widened, the areas were opening. On the other hand, the number of motor vehicles increased rapidly. A new vehicle in the streets of Istanbul, the dolmuş had shown the supply. In contrast to the world, the automobile was not a means of personal transport, but the stop turned into a kind of transportation. Large American cars, which were sold illegally from Belgium by triptych, reinforced the dependence of our country on foreign sources in terms of spare parts and fuel, but the trams, which were native to almost everything, were thoroughly discredited, they were constantly criticized.
On the other hand, the assembly industry establishments are being erected in Istanbul, and the factories of the workshop are growing rapidly, the migrant neighborhoods flowing like floods from Anatolia and the Balkans and the slums in the slums end up like mushrooms and Istanbul is growing rapidly.
It is interesting to note that the tramway was not thought to be included on the roads such as the runway opened with the new (second) zoning movement, and the tram was intentionally erased from the urban scene. As mentioned, the public air was also not in favor of trams.
As a result of this, on the 1 August 1953, the Maçka-Tunnel-Tram line was removed. Then, Taksim-Eminönü, Kadıköy-Moda and Bostancı lines were coming. Trams were constantly harmed, and buses were profitable. In this case, the tram operation should be abolished for the number of vehicles, disruption of traffic, old wagons, reduced passenger, etc.
It was understood that the trams would be lifted, but the time was not clear. In the meantime, the tram rails on the road were buried on the Anatolian Side in order to prevent Üsküdar and Havalisi Halk Trams Company vehicles from disrupting other traffic. However, the economic situation of the company was shaken. He could not perform his services. In the General Assembly held on 11 November 1954, the decision of termination and liquidation was taken and the transfer of the enterprise to Istanbul Municipality was requested. The articles in the press also criticized the municipality for not taking over this company. Finally, the decision of the City Council 1 April 1955 to give the Anatolian Side tram operation to the İETT'ya decision, the Anatolian Side was delighted.
A short time later, this organization was also attached to the General Directorate of IETT. The 56 tram line, which is now fully operated by IETT in Istanbul, was even reduced to 1960 in 16. In 1950, 7.4 million TL expense was related to 10 million TL income of the enterprise and 1960 million TL was spent in 9.8 for 23.7 million TL. As seen, the budget deficit of 1950 million TL in 3s has exceeded 1960 million TL in 10. Also 1951 in 262 yearly runs 13.6 million km per year by tram. 97.8 1961 by 82 by 4.2 a year ago. 26.5 million passengers were transported
This is the end of the electric tram on the Istanbul coast after a full 90 year. The final preparations were made for the commissioning of the trolleybuses. And by a telephone order, the trams will be on their last expedition on the 12 August 1961.
On the last day all of the wagons were equipped with lush taflan and laurel branches. . Last time yapan sign was placed in front of some of the people of the country, and others were hung over the windows with cloth pennants, and ılmış good-bye, dear passengers! Eler, and ılmış those who worship the wagons were the old veterans and the staff. There was no decision taken by the Administration; master homelanders were strawberry cups.
”ELVEDA, DEAR PASSENGERS!“
The author of the book called Tram in Istanbul, Celik Gulersoy, who is the witness of the incident and one of the most important sources of this book, says his book with a painful expression:
"Was it, the trams, the outgoing, about half of our life?"
Aksaray played an important role in the lifting of the tram that Istanbulites loved and loved. Istanbul's trams were not considered much to discredit. Aksaray was the first neighborhood in Istanbul where the tram was lifted, or had its misfortune. The only reason for this was that the construction move in Istanbul was started from Aksaray.
According to officials, a tram to Istanbul was unnecessary. It didn't do anything, and it was hampering traffic. The days when the city had largely provided public transport and tied the city from one end to the other. There was no place for tram in Istanbul, which was ”reforming da with tu reconstruction movement“. The tram, which was the den favorite Yıl of Istanbul for many years, fell from the eye. The benefits of services, almost forgotten, were pushed aside. In fact, there was a lot of people who didn't fit the tram in Istanbul. On the wide streets, the historic tram was even seen as the ı primitive Geniş mark. Instead, more modern vehicles were needed, carrying more passengers. This vehicle has never worked in Istanbul until now.
No investigation, no research, facilities modernization and facilities were not mobilized. If it is well studied, the removal of the tramway operation may be seen at the source of today's transportation problems in Istanbul. Istanbul Side trams were loaded onto barges and moved to the Anatolian side of the city. In the 1961, tram lines running on the Asian side are:
xnumxüsküd is Kadıköy
xnumxüsküd is Kadıköy
IETT Tramway Company 1965 12.9 2.8 million passengers in the year, 10 million TL. income, XNUMX million TL. ' has realized the expense. Another point that should not be mentioned here is that the fleet numbers of the trams of Istanbul had some characteristics.
For example; single fleet numbered trams II. Location, double fleet number one trolley vehicles was I. Place. From 1914 to 1966, 350 tram was served in Istanbul and Anatolian side. The breakdown and technical specifications of these vehicles are given below.
21 of the AEG model trams were with air brake and automatic catch. Later, their chassis was extended in IETT workshops and more passengers were provided. Metin Duru, one of the İETT engineers, produced and operated a new generation of these trams in Şişli Ateliers with local materials and craftsmanship in 1954. In addition, the 6 tramway engine was replaced by a Parkinson trolleybus engine. These were tested on the road to Kuruçeşme. With a Landrover jeep the tram was brought to the nose and activated at the same time. While the tram is finally on its way, jipin km. ' si was showing 60 per hour. However, there were tremendous tremors in the tram. This issue was fixed by adjusting the resistors later.
TH model trolleys were brought to the 19 units and were made to take double trailers. These were given to Beşiktaş depot.
Siemens brand trams were used by Üsküdar and Havalisi Halk Trams Company on the Anatolian Side. The doors were in the middle and bolt. There were also types used as trailers.
MOTOR: Siemens 50 Kw power, 550 volt permanent drafter Two electric motors
SPEED: 60 km / h
CAPACITY: 34 passenger, 12 seating / 22 standing
PRODUCTION PLACE: F. Germany
INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE: 10.1.1914
MOTOR: BERGMAN 50 Kw in the feed, 550 volt two electric motors
SPEED: 60 km / h
CAPACITY: 37 passenger, 12 seating / 25 standing
PRODUCTION PLACE: F. Germany
INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE: 1914
MOTOR: AEG 45 Kw power, 550 volt permanent drafter Two electric motors
SPEED: 60 km / i
CAPACITY: 45 passenger, 12 seating / 33 standing
PRODUCTION PLACE: F. Germany
INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE: 1926
MOTO: Two electric motors with Thomson 65 Kw power, 600 volt permanent
SPEED: 60 kw / h
CAPACITY: 34 passenger, 12 seating / 22 standing
PRODUCTION PLACE: F. Germany
INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE: 9.1.1928
MOTOR: Siemens 50 Kw power, 550 volt permanent draft
SPEED: 50 km / h
CAPACITY: 42 passenger, 22 seating / 20 standing
PRODUCTION PLACE: F. Germany
INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE: 1934
FIRST GREVE PARTICIPANTS
We want to end our history of the tram by highlighting several historical events and features:
· Implementation of the first strike in the history of the Republic of Turkey was done by workers in Istanbul Tram Company 1928. This strike was attended by 110 tram countrymen and ticketmaker. Therefore, in addition to being the first transportation company, the tram is also the first strike operation.
· An interesting event is told in the memories of a homeland. One of the citizens, came to the Besiktas tram depot, in the hands of the paper written in the trams, he bought them and wants to take to his village says. It's been hard to convince the guy. At the end the work is enlightened. Sülün Osman, the famous pickpocketer of those days, sold the trams to the buggy. The document on his hand shows that he paid 5,000 TL for two trams.
· Red and green colored trams offered comfort option by applying price difference to passengers on the same lines.
· On Saturday and Sunday there were free tram services for military-officers who could not ride civilians.
· In 40 in Istanbul, the tramway operation was valid for 2 hours.
· On the tram routes with major slopes such as Fatih-Harbiye, a single wagon (motris) was usually employed.
· During the summer months, trams were run on every side and more shaky than the other trams. These people were called ”Tango Trailer Bunlar.
· Istanbul's well-known, popular figures were identified with trams and some tram lines. According to Mehmet Çobanoğlu, who was the oldest citizen, Hüseyin Pehlivan from Tekirdağ and İsmail Dümbüllü were the first to come to mind when the Yedikule-Bahçekapı tram line was mentioned.
· Another image to be remembered by trams; while hanging to make a free trip to the back of the trams or picking up a single ticket inside, grabbing the ticket from the hand and going crazy. The two-trailer arrays were unforgettable parts of the summer wagons trams. It was a passion for the kids to jump on the tram or jump off the tram. Not knowing this job was seen as a big deficiency among children, and at the first opportunity, his friends would teach that boy to jump into the tram. The masters of this work would brag that la I jump off the tram when I go with 9 Bu. I 9 ği was the last point where the arm in front of the homeland could be turned. It was a sign of the tram's top speed. The front and the back of the trams were written with the text ama Jump is forbidden and dangerous mak, but it could not be said to have much effect. This event has always continued, even though those who fell underneath the tram fell off the wheels, were injured and died.
· Electric trams were safe vehicles, resulting in fewer accidents than riding trams. The main cause of the accident was excessive speed. The average speed of the trams was 5 in bends and crowded places, and 20-25 km / h in open and straight roads. These speeds were driving downhill, causing drizzling in the drizzle of rain and cornering, leaving the cars out of the way. Another cause of accidents was brake errors. Especially II. Worn brakes had a significant role in the shortage of materials after World War II. In addition, the use of intact brakes without technical rules was also important. Trams; electromagnetic, rheostatic, direct, and handbrake. 'Anger' was an inevitable consequence of material aging or misuse. Another cause of the accident was the weather. In any case that moisturized the rails, the internal device that provides continuous sand spillage was operated. He was in charge of getting out of the dirt, or the failure of the pipes to pour the sand onto the tracks. Again, it should be noted, however, that the trams according to today's cars were extremely safe means of travel.
ŞİŞHANE FACİASI There have been various types of accidents on different dates in Istanbul Tramways. However, there are one of these accidents; Istanbulites are remembered by advanced ages. This accident, known as Şişhane Disaster, occurred on the date of 26 February 1936. On the way to Harbiye, the 122 fleet numbered tram under Vatman Honorary management, on the way to Şişli, got braked and stopped quickly, slamming down an apartment building. The passengers were stacked on top of each other. As a result of crashing and crushing, 6 has lost its lives. The tram 122 was also damaged. After this trolley accident, some measures were taken in urban transportation. Accordingly, it was decided not to take more than the 28 passengers on the trams. However, this restriction was not implemented as soon as the effect of the accident was eliminated. In the meantime, the tram number 122 was repaired in the carpenter's shop in the Şişli store. One finger in one hand was reconstructed by a master named Aristidi. However, all officials were reluctant to issue the tram again. Because the 122 filou would not get on the tram. Finally the fleet number of the tram was changed to 180. And so the expedition. He worked for many years. No one could understand that this tram was a tram that led to the Şişhane Disaster and continued its safety.
· On the days when it was snowing, it was necessary to clean the scissors on the lines continuously. If it wasn't cleaned, the snow would turn into ice and prevent the scissor from opening and closing. Therefore, the scissors in certain parts of the lines are always on snowy days.
· IETT's teams served. They took the snow and ice from the scissors with the long iron in their hand, and then cleaned them with small brooms. There was no way of avoiding the working conditions in power conditions by pretending that the weather was rainy or cold. Everyone from his homeland to his ticketmaker, his plankone worker, and the worker who opened the roads, would have the excitement of doing the job. For three and five hours after the rain, Istanbul, snow and rain against the flag of the delivery would not attract.1
AND FINAL VE
In 1966, when the tramway operation was terminated on the Anatolian side, the vehicles were taken to the tram depot in Kuşdili and they were kept there for a long time. They would be sold if the customer came out. However, according to reports in the newspapers, the trams were neither the area nor the sellers. The snow was rotting in the rain. A part of the trams were given to the scrap dealer. Some of them have detachable seats for sale.
IETT who thought that the summer cinema operators would get them, declared ads to newspapers by saying düşün chair for sale Yazlık. But nobody cared.
If it was used on the beach, there were trams still remaining in the sledgehammer. After more than a thousand 125 trolley vehicles were waiting for days, IETT Department of Vehicles President Adil Tahtacı made a proposal to General Manager Saffet Gürtav and Mayor Fahri Atabey to evaluate some of them. Tahtacı said,, Let us establish a vehicle museum. Let's put a few trams here. We'll save them from oblivion. Onları Mayor Adil Tahtacı, who lifted the trams and set up the trolleybus network instead, found the proposal of the Mayor appropriate. Works began immediately. The 15-20 wagon, which was saved from being sent to the camp, was overhauled and arranged like the past and opened a museum. Finally, the tram depot in Kadıköy Kuşdili became the İETT Museum of Vehicles.
But a museum of transport was seen in Istanbul. Half of the building was given to Kadıköy Fire Department. There was no room left in the museum. Two tramways from the museum, 1990'dan door, motor, window to the seat was renewed and renewed until the time. Behind them, two green Ark trailers da were taken from the museum. Now he works at Tünel-Taksim. They want to create the appearance of the old Beyoğlu Taksim and go between the tunnel,
1 In March 1996, a museum-exhibition, which is mainly based on photography and a few parts from tram operation, was opened to visitors at the entrance of IETT Karaköy Headquarters.
During the liquidation of the museum, some of the old tram cars and wagons were still operational, the local government's traffic-free pedestrian zone applications were brought to the agenda and the old Istanbulites were at the intersection of the trolley aspirations at some point. and carried out.
29 The tunnel agon Taksim tram ünel, which was commissioned with its old colors and features, is composed of two tow trucks and wagons. Until 1990 January 15, these trams were made free of charge, after which a discounted ticket fee was applied. From 1991 March 20, IETT discounted bus tickets have been valid on tram. The maximum speed of the 1991 Volt direct current trams is 600 km / h and the engine powers are 40 x 2 HP. Each vehicle weighs 51 tons. The length of the line is 13 meter and the rail width is 1,860 millimeter. The 1000 mm80 catenary line is a rail type groove used by trams with wire section. Motris lengths are 2 meters, their width is 8,5 meters. The number of seats in the motris is 2.2 and the trailers are 12. The company is still operating continuously and seamlessly on the side of Tunnel Branch Office and it continues to be a center of attraction both for Istanbul and tourists.