Nükhet Işıkoğlu: Hundred Years of Hayal Marmaray

Hundred Years of Hayal Marmaray

”The sea is a wet emperor.

The dream city where two continents come to eye and the sea passing through it. Colors, smells, people, life spree Istanbul.

29 has been besieged many times, 3 is the capital of the great empire. It is a chance to live in this sea town which has been spread over two continents and has no other wife in the world. The joy of seeing the historical and natural beauties in front of our eyes at any moment, but never without deki

Can history be touched? This is possible in Istanbul. Every time you extend your hand, every time you roam your eyes around you take a walk in history in this magical city. Sarayburnu, Kizkulesi, Haydarpasa, Sultanahmet, Hagia Sophia ve The Bosphorus Bridge, which connects the Black Sea and the Sea of ​​Marmara, connects the city with the Anatolian Side and the European Side.

The name “Bosphorus”, namely the “Cow Pass”, which is the equivalent of the Bosphorus in foreign languages, comes from the lover that Zeus put into a cow shape to hide from his wife, Hera. This is us Kadıköy It actually gives a clue about what the bull statue on the Six Roads means…

The Bosphorus that passed through the bosom of Istanbul separated the two continents. He carried the Black Sea water to the open seas güney Mixed the cold north waters and the hot and salty southern waters by the shortest path.

As soon as we return from Sarayburnu, all the seas of the world open to us Saray
Being in Istanbul means not seeing the sea as an obstacle, but as a part of life, being a friend with seagulls. Despite the sea, it is not to exceed the sea distances.

The idea of ​​crossing the Bosphorus and connecting the two continents was always dreamed, discussed, tried. For centuries, the people of two continents have met with colorful boats, sailing ships and boats.

BC for the first time in history. 513 In the Persian ruler Dafra has crossed one side of the Bosphorus to the other. Between the Anatolian Fortress and the points where Rumeli Fortress is located, he built a floating bridge by placing the ships next to each other and passed the 80.000 soldier from one side of the Bosphorus to the other.

Later, the Turks who had conquered Anatolia during the conquest of Rumelia, thought to make a bridge to pass through the straits. The Rumeli Fortress built by Bayezid Bayezid and the Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror is a preliminary preparation of the future bridge.

Many during the reign of Fatih Sultan Mehmet Rönesans The European artist under the influence tries to contact the sultan to provide financial support for their research. One of them is Leonardo Da Vinci, one of the most important names of his time. Some of the projects that Da Vinci was planning to do in the early 1500s were sent by a letter to Fatih Sultan Mehmed's son II. It reports to Beyazid. One of Da Vinci's suggestions, which mentioned a few projects that he intends to realize in the letter, is to make a bridge to reach Galata through the Golden Horn. We do not have any information about what Bayezid thinks in the face of Da Vinci's proposals, stating that he can also build a bridge between the two sides of the Bosphorus if requested.

There is one more man who does not mention his name when talking about crossing the throat. Throughout history has not been like him passing Bosphorus. Galata'dan, Üsküdar'a printed by opening the name of Hezarfen Ahmet Çelebi aç

The idea of ​​combining both sides of Istanbul, which is growing rapidly, is the 19. From the turn of the century brought new projects.

The first tube passage project proposal in the archives was made by Eugene Henri Gavand, engineer of the tunnel between Galata and Pera. Henri Gavand presented a tube passage project in 1876 to the Ottoman Government in Bosphorus between Sarayburnu and Üsküdar.

The second project for the connection between Sarayburnu and Üsküdar by tube passage was presented by French S. Preault in 1891.

As a third project, during the reign of Sultan Abdulhamid Khan, a tube passage between Uskudar and Sarayburnu was reconsidered and a new project was prepared by three American engineers, Frederic E. Strom, Frank T. Lindman and John A. Hilliker.

The preparation of a bridge project to the Bosphorus goes to the 1878 Ottoman - Russian War. The project was presented to Sultan Abdülhamid in November of 1900. This project, known as Cisr-i Hamidi, is a project known as the first Bosphorus Bridge project in the history of Ottoman engineering.

The Cisr-i Hamidi Hamidiye Bridge, which is planned to be built on the part between the Rumeli and Anatolian Fortress of the Bosphorus, is considered as a suspension bridge of 600 meters. The project is carried out by the Germans who run the Baghdad Railway. According to the project, the bridge will be built in the style of magraves, and each pillar will have long minarets of marble domes. II. It is said that the main purpose of Wilhelm's project is to bring the 12 between Hamburg and Calcutta by rail. Sultan II. Abdülhamid Han's throne and the conditions of that period, such as the project was removed from the dusty shelves of history.

The railroad project that surrounds the city with the help of the two bridges in the 1900 of the French engineer Arnodin could not be realized due to the high costs.

According to Arnodin's project, the railway, which started from Bostancı, would reach Kandilli, and it would pass through the Bosphorus Bridge to the Bosphorus Bridge called Hamidiye. A line from Rumeli Hisarı, which reached to Bakırköy by arriving at Bakırköy, would reach Sirkeci from Bakırköy with the existing railway. In order to ensure the transition from Sirkeci to the Anatolian side, a second bridge would be made to Üsküdar. A short railway line between Üsküdar and Haydarpaşa will be laid on the existing railway line and thus easily reached to Bostancı. Thus, the integrated railway project, which envisaged the construction of two Bosphorus bridges surrounding Istanbul, would be completed.

One of the attempts to bridge the Bosphorus was Nuri Demirağ, one of the great entrepreneurs of the republican period. Demirağ brought experts from America in 1931. He made a deal with the builders of the famous Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, USA. They agreed to bring the same order to Istanbul and preparations began. Between Ahırkapı and Salacak, 8 feet on land, 10 feet at sea, 2 meters long, 560 meters 20 centimeters wide, 73 meters 53 meters above sea level, 34 meters suspended, the upper side of the iron bridge project has been completed. With a pair of scissors that will leave Kumkapı, the train will pass, and there will be separate roads for trams, trucks, cars and buses on both sides of the train line, and both sides of the bridge will be for pedestrians.

Atatürk likes the prepared project and says fer Well done to Nuri Atatürk. He then refers the project to the government. The project, which comes to the Ministry of Public Works of the time, is examined by the engineers. However, despite the support of Mustafa Kemal, the Acting Minister of Public Works (Minister of Public Works) Ali Çetinkaya obstacle, this project also shares the same end with others.

The foundation of the bridge that has been dreamed for centuries for the unification of Asia and Europe was laid by 20 February 1970 Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel. After three years of construction, 30 opened in October 1973 with a magnificent ceremony attended by five hundred thousand people.

In 1988, fifteen years after the first was built a second bridge a few kilometers north. The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge and the Bosphorus were overtaken by the Bosphorus for the second time after fifteen years.

The need for the construction of a railway link that runs between the east and the west and passes under the Bosporus in Istanbul, which is growing day by day, gradually increased in the early 1980s. As a result, the first comprehensive feasibility study was conducted in 1987. As a result of the feasibility studies, it has been determined that such a connection is technically feasible and cost-efficient and the route we see in today's Marmaray project has been determined.

These studies were completed in 1998 and according to the results obtained, it was revealed that the project will offer many advantages to the people working and living in Istanbul and will reduce the rapidly increasing problems related to the traffic jam in the city.

The foundations of the Marmaray Project were laid by Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in 2004 and the construction is still in progress. Marmaray is a railway project that will unite the European and Asian sides under the sea. The project, which will shorten the transportation time of one million people and save energy and time, will benefit the air quality by decreasing the use of motorized vehicles.

When the construction is completed, the line connected to Marmaray is 1,4 km. (Tube tunnel) and 9,8 km. (Drilling tunnel) throat crossing and on the European side Halkalı- Sirkeci is planned to be approximately 76,3 km long, on the Anatolian side, between Gebze and Haydarpaşa. Railways on different continents will be combined with immersed tube tunnels under the Bosphorus. The Marmaray Project will have the deepest immersed tunnel in the world with 60,46 meters. In the project, which is expected to carry 75.000 passengers per hour in one direction only, every 2-10 minutes. It is planned to have train services between the two.

Istanbul, which is a world in history, life in life, a world in the world, this time connects Asia and Europe to the sea with iron nets through the Marmaray Project.



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