Atatürk and Railway
Founder of the Turkish Republic, national unity and togetherness for the sake of ensuring the whole life of the nation dedicated to the leader, chief commander, Ataturk head 71. On the anniversary of death, we commemorate again with respect, love and longing.
Under the leadership of Almighty Atatürk, a country that has been under occupation and being demolished in poverty, has been reborn with the power of being a nation, being a unity, and showing the power of the Turkish nation to the whole world.
Atatürk was not only a very good soldier, a very good statesman, a very good organizer, a very good politician but also a good planner, strategy and logistics expert. This month spell in our War of Independence and after Atatürk wanted to talk about the importance given to logistics and rail during the reconstruction of the new Republic of Turkey.
During the years of the War of Independence, the importance of meeting the needs of our army's weapons, food and clothing on time was well understood and the triumphs were achieved by making plans to achieve this.
Atatürk chose Ankara as the management and main supply center. The reason for this was the logistics point which was most suitable for the war in Western Anatolia and the intersection of the existing railways at that time. Ammunition and materials brought to İnebolu by sea were transported to Ankara with their carts and carts, and the materials coming from Central Anatolia to Kırıkkale (Yahşihan) were transported to Ankara by rail. The materials collected in Ankara were sent to Malıköy and Polatlı.
Prior to the Great Attack, he ordered Behiç Erkin, the founding general manager of TCDD, to D repair the Polatlı-Eskişehir line as soon as possible ön and provided the railroad with the delivery of 250 tons of food and 325 tons of ammunition to the front.
Atatürk emphasized the importance of logistics for the economy, not only in the war years but also in the later periods. In his book için Civil Information for the Citizen X, Atatürk 1930 emphasized the importance of transportation. In 1938, even in its last days, 4 listened to the investment projects of the ports of Trabzon and Zonguldak in the year 3. In the year 1927 nationalized the railways and provided the establishment of the General Directorate of State Railways and Ports.
transportation facilities in the country established the Republic of Turkey was the first year in which the situation is far from meeting the needs. There was no road, nor transportation. It was just a railroad built by foreigners and operated by them on the 4112 mileage işlet And transportation on this railway was very expensive.
For years, it has lagged behind the times, with the national struggle and its independence. kazanThe young Turkey, which has become old, embarked on a wide-ranging program of work both to overcome the backwardness and to rebuild a war-ravaged country. With these thoughts, the transportation problem was discussed in a very broad way at the Economics Congress convened in Izmir to determine the economic policy of the country.
In his opening speech, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk said, eler We are obliged to turn our country into a network with the help of the wind turbines and on the running lines. Because the garb and the universe, and they are quite, the massifs, quite against them, with the merkepler, with the wood, there is no way to go on the course of natural roads, "he said the importance of transportation infrastructure.
In line with the decisions of the Economic Congress, it was started to work immediately on the basis of the view that there is a transport infrastructure, which is the main factor for the development of the country. 1923 In Umuru Nafia program, the railway network, which crosses the country in the east-west direction and connects with the branch lines and centers and ports, has been planned.
In his speech at the groundbreaking ceremony held in 21 September 1924 with the private enterprise of Atatürk Samsun-Çarşamba railway, «The opportunity for me to see the beginning of the exercise of the first national enterprise in the railway is a coincidence for me. Given the harshness of our country for centuries and the severity of the need for a railroad, the extent to which the entrepreneurial ones are to be appreciated and the degree to which they need to be helped is very well understood. »By emphasizing the importance of the initiatives in this field.
1924. Term 2. In the opening speech of the Assembly year, it is difficult to extend the current tools of the civilization and its current idea outside the railway. Railway is a way of prosperity and civilization. »He stated his opinion.
When located within the territory of the Republic of Turkey founded 4112 km. 3756 km.lik part of the railway was built by foreign companies, 356 km. the railway was built by the Russians during the years of occupation. The existing lines could not meet the needs of the country. Moreover, a large part of the country had not even a railroad. For this reason, the issue of rail was first handed. Consequently, the Republic of Turkey, the country based on actual development and has pursued an independent national rail policy that determined according to national needs, such as defense.
In the period of 1923 - 1938, rail was the most important problem of the country and it was handled with great seriousness. The password görül more than one ”is considered as milli national unity, national presence, national independence“. Turkey's economic and knowledge to the lagging regions of the country as well as in economic attitudes, knowledge and civilization to take, it was seen as a necessity in terms of national presence and safety.
National and independent railway policy developed in two main directions. The first of these is to build new railways to create a network structure, the second is to buy the railways owned by foreign companies and nationalize them and give the railway a national character. kazanwas to climb. When it was decided to purchase the Anatolian line with a law adopted by the Turkish Grand National Assembly on April 22, 1924, the construction policy and nationalization policy started at the same time.
In the 1931 Atatürk in a speech in Malatya «within the project has identified the government of Turkey, will be connected by steel rails all regions of the country within a specified time. Railways are a more important safety weapon than wholesale. The Turkish nation, who will use the railways, will be proud of showing the work of the first artistry in its source and the work of blacksmithing. Railways are the ways of prosperity and civilization of the Turkish nation. »He expressed his thoughts about the railway.
When the Republic Government chose Ankara as the capital, the first task was to connect Ankara to the main regions and cities of the country with the new lines, and the Ankara-Sivas, Samsun-Sivas lines were decided to be constructed. 1923 at 4112 km. The length of the railway is 1938 at 6927.
In the 1937 5 3. ve Railways are a sacred torch that illuminates a country with the lights of civilization and prosperity. Since the early years of the Republic, the policy of the construction of the railroads, which we have been persistently emphasizing on, is being carried out successfully with the aim of achieving its objectives. Du
Atatürk traveled by train to every place outside the port cities he reached by sea. 2 service wagon 1935, which was used by the railroad in its dormitory trips, was insufficient. A train was ordered from the Linke Hofman-Werke factory. Since the train window is dark blue and the upper part is white, it is called ı Atatürk's White Train enc.
Atatürk was on the 12 November 1937 day with the White Train. He went to Kayseri, Sivas, Diyarbakir, Elazig, Malatya, Adana and Mersin. 21 entered the Ankara Railway Station on the day of 1937 on Afyon and Eskişehir. At the end of this journey, Atatürk's disease increased.
10 1938 19 1938 XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX. When the cortege reached the Sarayburnu, Ata's body was placed on the dock with the Zafer destroyer and on the battleship of Yavuz waiting in the open. And then in Izmit, they were landed in ürül White Train le in a ceremony to be taken to Ankara and six torches were burned. The National Anthem, which was played by the divan band and the tears of the public, moved towards Ankara.
Thus, Atatürk was on his eternal voyage with the White Train, which was a legend among the public, on which he traveled all over the country. He was a railway enthusiast who emphasized the importance of the railroad on every occasion on the road to civilization through his studies, decisions and practices on the railroad.
On this occasion, I commemorate Mustafa Kemal Atatürk once again and I write my words with the verses of Cahit Külebi. … When we ride a train, we remember you ip “
Source: A View to the Railway Policy of Atatürk Period / Asst. Associate Professor. View İsmail's Full Profile
Atatürk's Trains / Ruhan çelebi / kentvedemiryolu.com