History of Marmaray Project: The first railway tunnel that was planned to pass through the Bosphorus was drafted in 1860. The figure shows a tunnel and floating cross-sections standing on the columns and floating in the sea.
The idea about a railway tunnel under the Istanbul Strait was first proposed in 1860. But where the tunnel planned to pass under the Bosphorus would pass through the deepest parts of the Bosphorus, it would not be possible to build the tunnel above or under the seabed, using old techniques; and so this tunnel was planned as a tunnel over the columns built on the seabed in the design.
Such ideas and ideas were further evaluated in the following 20-30 year-round and a similar design was developed in 1902; in this design, a railway tunnel passing under the Bosphorus is envisaged; but in this design, a tunnel is placed on the seabed. Since then, many different ideas and ideas have been tried and new technologies have given more freedom to design.
Immersed Tube Tunnel Technique
Within the scope of the Marmaray Project, the technique to be used to cross the Istanbul Strait (immersed tube tunnel technique) 19. It has been developed since the end of the century. The first immersed tube tunnel, built in 1894, was built in North America for sewage purposes. The first tunnels using this technique for traffic purposes were also built in the United States. The first is the Michigan Central Railways tunnel built during the 1906-1910 years. In Europe, the country that first applied this technique was the Netherlands; and the Maas Tunnel built in Rotterdam was opened in 1942. Japan was the first to implement this technique in Asia, and the two-tube highway tunnel (Aji River Tunnel) built in Osaka was put into service in 1944. By contrast, the number of these tunnels has remained limited until 1950s have developed a robust and proven industrial technique; After the development of this technique, the construction of large scale projects in many countries was started.
The desire for the construction of a public transport link between Istanbul and the east of the Bosphorus, which has passed under the Bosphorus, has gradually increased in the early years of 1980, and as a result, the first comprehensive feasibility study was conducted and reported in 1987. As a result of this study, it has been determined that such a connection is technically feasible and cost-effective and the route we have seen in the project today has been chosen as the best among a number of routes.
Year 1902 ve Sarayburnu - Üsküdar (Strom, Lindman and Hilliker Design)
Year 2005 burn Sarayburnu - Üsküdar
The project, which was outlined in 1987, was discussed in the following years, and in approximately 1995, it was decided to carry out more detailed studies and studies and to update feasibility studies including passenger demand forecasts in 1987. These studies have been completed in 1998 and the results have shown the accuracy of the results obtained and revealed that the project will offer many advantages to the people living and working in Istanbul and will reduce the rapidly increasing problems related to traffic congestion in the city.
In the 1999 Turkey and Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) financing agreement has been signed between. This loan agreement forms the basis of the projected financing for the Istanbul Bosphorus Crossing section of the Project.
This loan agreement also includes the provision of a group of international consultants who will be selected through competitive bidding. The selected consultant, Avrasya Consult, prepared the Tender Documents for the Project at March 2002.
The tenders were open to international and national contractors and / or joint ventures.
In the 2002 contract BC4 geç Railway Throat Tube Crossing Construction, covering the construction of the 1 station with throat tube passage and approach tunnels; Tunnels and Stations were tendered and a contract was signed on May 2004 with the joint venture that took the tender. For this contract, a second loan agreement was signed with JICA in 2004.
The project is currently one of the largest transport infrastructure projects in the world. The entire new and improved railway system will be approximately 76 km long. Main structures and systems, immersed tube tunnel, drilling tunnels, open-close tunnels, level structures, 3 new underground station, 36 aboveground station (renovation and improvement), operating control center, pitches, workshops, maintenance facilities, to be built on the ground new A third line will consist of 4 parts, including the upgrade of existing lines, completely new electrical and mechanical systems and modern rail vehicles to be supplied. A separate contract is made for each section;
- Engineering and Consulting Services (in force)
BC1 Railway Bosphorus Tube Crossing Construction
CR3 Gebze-Halkalı Improvement of Commuter Lines, Construction, Electrical and Mechanical Systems (In the Tender Process)
Supply of CR2 Railway Vehicles (in force)
In addition, the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the 2004 (2006) have signed loan agreements for the financing of the Commuter Rail Systems (CR1) and the 2006 for the production of Railway Vehicles (CR2) in order to regulate the financing agreements of the major parts of the Project. With the Council of Europe Development Bank (CEB), loan agreements have been signed for the financing of the CR2008 contract in 1 year and in the 2010 for the financing of the CR2 contract.
Contract CR1 da Commuter Lines Improvement and Electro-Mechanical Systems UM work was signed in 2006 in 2004 (2007) and the contract was signed on March 2007 in 2010. ICC Arbitration process started on application.
The tender process under the name of Contract CR3 started with the publication of the International Bidding Announcement in July 2010 and technical proposals will be opened in January 2011.
Contract CR2 The contract for the Aralık Supply of Rail Vehicles Kasım was signed on 2008 (2007) in 2008.