Istanbul's first Underground / Metro was put into service on 17 January 1875. Tünel, which was built between 1871-1876 and is the public transportation system that connects Karaköy (Galata) and Beyoğlu (Pera) from underground, is the first subway of Istanbul. It is the third oldest subway in the world after London, which entered service in 1863, and the New York Metro, built in 1868.
On January 17, 1875, Istanbul's first "Underground train / Metro" water was put into service. The "Underground train", which started to operate in the last years of Sultan Abdulaziz Han's reign and is colloquially referred to as "Tunnel", is the only transport from nineteenth century Istanbul to the present day.
While this transport of vehicles, which connects Karaköy and Beyoğlu and is called "Metro" by the French, means "Underground train" in Turkish, our Baticism is required (!) The word "Metro" is taken exactly and this word is about the problem of the traffic jam of Istanbul. It has been frequently repeated in recent years.
A French engineer named Henry Gawan during his trip to the East - he also stopped by Istanbul and he said that many people climb up and down the Yuksek Kaldirim, which connects "Pera" and "Galata / Karakoy" with the shortest route in those years. He thought that the train that would run on an underground road to be opened in the vicinity would meet a great need, of course, he calculated the “profit” side of the business before everything else and contacted well-known construction companies as soon as he returned to France.
Unable to receive compliments from French companies, Henry Gawan later applied to the English and the first underground train of Istanbul was built by the British and cost an estimated one hundred and fifty thousand British liras.
This five hundred and fifty-meter underground train was operated by the English until 1914 and transferred to an Ottoman company on that date, and in 1939 it was taken over by IETT. The underground train, which could not be operated due to lack of equipment during the Second World War, is still active.