The first railway in Turkey privilege given to a British company in 1856, Izmir - built between Aydin, was only completed in 130, the construction of this pipeline is 1866 km in length.
The Izmir-Turgutlu-Afyon line, which was built by another concessioned British company, and the 98 km of the Manisa-Bandırma line were completed in 1865 and the remaining parts of the line were completed in the following years. Istanbul-Edirne and Kırklareli-Alpullu sections of the 1869 km oriental railways, which were given to Baron Hirsch in 2000, were completed and put into operation in 336.
The railways designed to be built in Anatolia were thought to be built by the state, and the construction of the Haydarpaşa-Izmit line was started with a will issued in 1871 and the 91 km line built in three departments was completed in 1873. However, the construction of Anatolian Railways and Baghdad and Cenup Railways, which could not be continued due to financial difficulties, were carried out with German capital.
In this way, 4000 km of the railways built and operated by various foreign companies before the Republic period remained within the national borders drawn with the declaration of the Republic. With the Law No. 24.5.1924 enacted on 506, these lines were nationalized and the "Anatolian-Baghdad Railways Directorate General" was established. It was named as "State Railways and Ports Administration General" with the Law no.
supplementary budget until 1953 in the form of a state administration managed our organization since 29.7.1953 by Law No. 6186/233/XNUMX "Republic of Turkey State Railways (TCDD) was transformed into the State Economic Enterprises under the name. Finally, with the Decree No. XNUMX put into effect, the 'Public Economic Enterprise' has been taken.
ANKARAY LIGHT RAIL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
Ankara Light Rail Public Transport System (ANKARAY) is designed to respond to the increasing transportation demand of Ankara residents on the East-West axis of the city (between Söğütözü Dikimevi).
ANKARAY, which will work on a 8.7km route between Söğütözü Dikimevi, consists of a total of 11 stations and a 100.000m 2 warehouse workplace.
While ANKARAY meets the increasing transportation in the east-west axis of the capital, it also meets the load of increasing passenger demand on this route with the opening of AŞTİ.
ANKARAY is designed to provide service from 16:06 in the morning to 00:24 at night with a carrying capacity of 00 thousand passengers per hour in one direction. The daily passenger transport capacity is 365000 and our daily passenger number has now reached 140.000.
ANKARAY operation; It is implemented according to a protocol between BUGSAŞ and EGO General Directorate.
A large part of our system is in the form of a "tunnel". Between the AŞTİ-EMEK stations and the warehouse area is level. The tunnels were made as cut and cover and bored tunnels. Maintenance and emergency walkways in tunnels are illuminated when necessary for operational conditions and safety reasons. The lighting system is activated manually or automatically if the power supply of the trains is cut. In addition, there are ventilation shafts between two stations in the tunnel that are activated in case of emergency.
Our vehicle sets consist of two types of "A" "B" and one type "B" vehicle. Type A vehicles are located at the head and end of the trains and are connected to the B vehicle in between with automatic couplers. The total length of the string is 87 m.
In normal operation, the train is equipped with a complete control and lamp set. The type A tool is operated by a train driver at one end. In addition, simplified cabins are located at the terminals and used for driving in confined spaces with single vehicles or during maintenance operations.
Our A type vehicles consist of two semi-bodies connected by a rubber bellows part. The vehicle has two different driver cabs. All the controls and switches used to drive the train are located in the operator's cabin, while in the "Simplified Cabin" there are only some controls and switches required for driving the vehicle in a limited area or for maintenance work.
Our B type tool consists of two parts which are connected to each other in a similar way. The vehicle has a panel at each end, the vehicle only in the restricted area or with the control and switches for use during maintenance work.
We currently have an 33 array of vehicles from our 11 vehicle. They will operate under normal operating conditions in the 9 array. The 1 array tool will be kept in reserve while the 1 array will be stored in our vehicle for maintenance and repair.
The 40 seat is available in every vehicle and the number of passengers is 162. Our vehicles are equipped with automatic train protection systems (ATP) and magnetic train protection system (MTC). These protection systems have been installed in the direction of normal traffic on all our lines dedicated to passenger traffic in order to prevent trains in the railway train and railway operations.
These protection systems:
- Monitoring permitted speeds
- Control of the route in the normal traffic direction or in the opposite direction
- Signaling adjustments, violations
- Scissors positions
- Provides a safe drive by detecting the end of the working zone
ANKARAY vehicles operate with 750 V DC electrical energy. The energy supply to the vehicles is provided by the 3rd rail system, which is mounted isolated on the sleepers along the line. 3. The rail conductor is made of steel and is suspended from the conductor rail support by means of an insulator. An unwanted contact with the conductor rail; It is blocked by a three-sided plastic cover. 3. Rail layout is generally located on sleepers and on the outer sides of the lines. However, it is installed on the opposite side of emergency walkways and station platforms in tunnel areas.
The power supply of the vehicles in the workshop building is made with the help of a top hanging cable. This system is called "Stinge" r. Thus, maintenance and repair work is provided without any danger.
The energy needed by the system is supplied from two TEDAŞ 154 / 34.5 kv transformer centers in Maltepe and Balgat.
Energy is transferred from transformer stations to warehouse areas, Beşevler, Demirtepe and Kurtuluş stations. This 4 rectifier transformer center is connected to each other by a cable line of 34.5 kv. This arrangement ensures that the system operates at low speed even if one of the rectifier transformer centers is disabled or broken.
A communication system is used to connect the control center equipment with the help of the SCADA system to the relevant remote connection units in the substations and passenger stations. Mimic panel is used to monitor the general view of the 34.5 / 10 kv network as a single line diagram.
The communication system in our business, voice, data and images by transferring different types of electrical signals such as transmission from a distance from the management and management personnel to provide a service that provides communication. Communication system; It provides voice and data communication via fiber transmission network with seamless transmission network.
In addition, the radio system in the trains provides voice and data communication. In case of any power failure in our power system, computer and data control devices and communication networks can be fed (UPS) in case of such an interruption, thanks to our "uninterrupted power supply" system.
Telephone sets at all stations and lines are directly connected to the Control Center in the Warehouse via the uninterrupted transmission network "OTN" and benefit from the wide range of facilities provided by our switchboard.
Our radio communication system 410-420 Mhz broadband over multi-frequency two-way amplifier, amplifier broadcasts along the entire line with the radio. In addition to the leaky coaxial cable installed in the communication, tunnel and stations, it is also made with antennas. The radio channels are allocated for the operating radio system, the maintenance radio system and the maneuvering area radio systems.
Two voice channels are available for direct voice communication between the central operator and trains.
Announcement system; changes in timelines, emergencies and accidents, etc. are used to publish public information. Announcements can be made locally from each station master's office or platform announcer, as well as from the Control Center.
Closed Circuit Television System (CCTV); It provides close follow-up of all kinds of movements of the stations. In order to provide visual information to the central operator in the control center with the station chief, cameras were placed on the floors of the platform and meza.
The 13 display on the center of the 11 display flows through at least 8 different cameras belonging to the XNUMX station via the continuous transmission network for remote control of the system from the control center. It is possible to select the cameras requested by the central operator and to have close observation and recording with the help of the image selection monitor.
There are two video recorders and a monitor for recording unusual occurrences of emergency situations in passenger stations.
FIRE ALARM SYSTEM
Each station consists of fire alarm panels in the office and in the central control room in the storage area. The hand-operated fire alarm buttons located in strategic locations allow fire alarms by users or personnel.
HISTORY OF TRAMING
The first tram was pulled by horses. These first tram lines running horse-drawn cars were laid in the USA in 1832. In France, between Montrond and Montbrison in 1838, again 14 km. A tram line was built.
This line, which is sometimes considered the first tram line in France, was able to serve for 10 years. The first city tram line where rails were buried in the road was also built in France by engineer Laubat in 1855 between the Paris Baulogne. Laubat built the same type of tramway in New York in 1853. That is why this road and the ones that were built later were called the "American Railway" at that time. Horse-drawn trams developed between 1860 and 1880 among Europe's largest cities.
The cable tram, the invention of Andrew Halidie, began to be used in San Francisco in 1873. These trams were pulling an endless cable running in a channel between the rails and connected to the steam-driven shaft in the traction center. In this system, which was more efficient on the slopes, the speed was always the same and if the cable was locked or broken, all trams remained on the road.
XIX. At the end of the century, with the developing electric drill, previous systems were abandoned. Mounted trams were replaced by electric trams.
On February 2, 1888, Frank J. Spraque pioneered the rapid development in Europe and America of an electric tram equipped with various innovations on a very sharp-profile line in Richmond.
In 1834, Thomas Devenport, a blacksmith at Brandon in Vermont, built a small battery-powered electric motor and used it to operate a small railcar. In 1860, the US GFTrain opened three tram lines in London and one in Birkenhead.
The tram system was established in Salford in 1862 and in Liverpool in 1865. The invention of the dynamo (generator) enabled the generated electrical power to be transmitted to trams via an overhead line. This method spread rapidly in England, Europe and America.
European trams had a curved rod called a bow or horn, or an adjustable device called a pantograph, to get power from the overhead line. In the USA, only unicorn trams were used. In England, an underground piping system was used instead of an overhead line from time to time.
In the 1920s, the tram was quite developed. In those years, it was the only public transportation vehicle in large and medium-sized cities.
However, with the emergence of private bus companies and automobiles, trams could not show themselves in this competition. And it quickly disappeared in many places. In the USA, cars and buses began to replace the tramway in the 1830s. This change accelerated in the 1940-50s. In Britain, in the 1930s, two-decker buses began to replace the tram. In the early 1950s, the tram took off in London. The last tram line in Paris closed in the 1930s. Upon this situation, managers of the American tram network started to research a fast tram type. After a trial period, 1936 PCC trams entered service in the USA and Canada between 1951 and 5000. PCC trams have been manufactured in Belgium and Czechoslovakia since 1951. In other countries, and especially in Germany, advanced tram types based on more electronics were produced, making it a reusable vehicle.
TRAM IN TURKEY
Turkey tram for the first time in 1896 by Konstantin Karopano master, in Azakkap the line-Besiktas began to be operated by a company. This horse-drawn tram was converted into electrical in 1909 and put into operation on different lines. In 1914, the trams in Istanbul were completely electrified. In Izmir, the use of the tram started on the 1884 Konak-Göztepe line, and with the preference of the Saray-Kasaba Train Station in the developing and crowded urban life, trams became unable to meet the needs. For this reason, the tram operation in Istanbul was canceled first on the Anatolian side and on the European side in 1967. Tram services ended in Izmir in 1954.
In 1990, rails were laid between Tünel and Taksim in Beyoğlu to run a tram again. Subsequently, the Light Rail Public Transport system began to be used in Istanbul.
THE IMPORTANCE OF RAILED SYSTEM IN URBAN TRANSPORTATION
· Due to the high efficiency of rail vehicles, energy consumption is 3 times less than buses.
Although the efficiency is over 80% in electrical machines, this rate does not exceed 30% in diesel and steam engines.
· Since the system is designed in electric trains, there is no problem of transportation, storage and re-loading of the fuel. This means that there are no costs such as transportation and storage, which contributes to the economy of the country in this respect. On the other hand, there is no waste of coal and fuel.
· Thousands of traffic accidents occur every year, even in countries where technological development and urban transport is high. Thousands of people die in these accidents, and so many are crippled. In addition, trillions of property damage occur. Material and moral damage destroys the morale of the society and it is a major blow to the national economy. In rail systems there are no such situations, or they are almost none.
Rail systems put into service in Istanbul, Ankara and Konya provide very cheap service to approximately 1/4 of the country's population with minimum personnel.
1 billion 5,5 billion bus for buses, 1,8 billion for railways and XNUMX billion for energy consumption.
· Rail systems have environmental characteristics that do not create air pollution.
· Rail vehicles go through tunnels or special roads that are independent of city traffic. Therefore, they will not make any negative contributions to the city traffic, but because they take the public transportation from buses and minibuses, they cause traffic relief. For example, Ankaray can carry 9 buses, 450 cars at a time.
· The vibrations of the Karataşıts and the bad weather caused by the snow and rain in the winter disrupt the roads, and the potholes formed on the damaged roads cause damage to the other vehicles and the transportation disruptions cannot be done in time. The maintenance and repair costs of such roads are very high. This is not the case in rail system vehicles.
Hundreds of tons of CO2 gas comes out of the exhaust of rubber-wheeled public transport vehicles, which has a significant effect on the increase of air pollution in metropolitan cities. In addition to CO2, PbO, NO, CO and other unburned gases, which are highly toxic gases, are mixed into the air of cities from the exhausts of wheeled vehicles. There is no such problem in rail systems.
· Rail vehicles offer no noise, no vibration, a spacious and safe environment.
· Since the stations are closed, passengers are not affected by weather conditions.
· In the winter, trains run on trains and the trains are warm and in summer the trains are cool and the trains are cool and passengers travel in a comfortable environment.
· For 1 million passengers, the bus pollutes the air at a rate of% 2, while rail systems do not damage the environment in any way.
· 1 million passengers are transported by 300 tons of exhaust gas, this ratio is zero in rail systems.
· In rail systems, there is punctuality since vehicles do not have problems such as being stuck in traffic and being late. Therefore, there is no such thing as waiting in vain at the stops. For example, Ankaray takes 76 minutes per passenger per day and 80.000 hours per month for the country's economy. kazanis rising.
· Electric trains accelerate very quickly and stop very quickly. This shortens travel time, increases the carrying capacity.
Since the speed of travel with rail systems is too high, the time loss in the journey is minimized. While the average travel speed in rail systems is 40 km / h, this speed does not exceed 15-20 km / h in buses.
· In electric trains, there is a driver's cab at both head of the train. When the train arrives at the last station, the driver passes to the other side of the cabin and continues in the other direction. Therefore, the locomotive's maneuvering and crossing to the other side of the problem and therefore no time loss.
· 8 floors for buses and 15 floors for buses are XNUMX times higher in passenger density for the same number of passengers as rail systems.
For the light rail system decided by the Ankara Metropolitan Municipality in the 1990 year, the section of the light rail system line proposed to be commissioned for the 2015 target year in the Ankara Urban Transportation Master Plan was handled in the city center and the line was In order to be able to respond with the transportation service and to connect with the new Ankara Intercity passenger terminal, the project has been designed in the route of Terminal-Beşevler-Tandoğan-Maltepe-Kızılay-Dikimevi.
An international tender was opened on 21.05.1991 for the project, whose transportation studies, preliminary project and feasibility studies and tender documents were prepared with the possibilities of the EGO General Directorate. AEG-BREDA-SİMKO-KUTLUTAŞ Consortium led by Siemens awarded the tender. kazanLater, Kutlutaş left the Consortium and was replaced by the Bayındır-Yüksel partnership.
EGO General Directorate and the Consortium signed a construction contract on 27.09.1991. The contract value was determined as 518.244.437 DM.
The line, whose construction started in August 1992 and is being put into operation, is 8725 m long and consists of 11 stations. It will serve with a fleet of 11 vehicles consisting of 33 series. Travel time between Dikimevi and ASTI is 13 minutes. The capacity of a series of 3 vehicles (with a ratio of 6 people / m2) is 915 passengers. (One vehicle capacity is 305 passengers.)
The loan agreements of the system, all of which were made with foreign loans, were signed between the EGO General Directorate and banks on 14.01.1992 with the guarantorship of the Undersecretariat of Treasury, and the order to start work was given on 07.04.1992.
Ankara Light Rail Transport System 30 was put into service on August 1996.