Turkey given to a British company on the first rail concession in 1856, Izmir - built between Aydin, in the 130 1866 km length of this line construction could be completed.
The İzmir-Turgutlu-Afyon line and the 98 km of Manisa-Bandırma line, which were constructed by another British company, were completed and completed in 1865 and the rest of the line was completed in the following years. The construction concession in 1869 was connected to the European railways of Istanbul with the opening of 2000 km of 336 km of 1888 km which was given to Baron Hirsch by the completion of the XNUMX km in Istanbul-Edirne and Kırklareli-Alpullu.
The construction of the railways planned to be constructed in Anatolia was planned by the state and the construction of the Haydarpaşa-Izmit line was started with a will on 1871 and the 91 km line made in three sections was completed in 1873. However, the Anatolian Railways and Baghdad and Cenup Railways were realized with German capital.
In this way, the 4000 km of the railways constructed and operated by various foreign companies before the Republican period was within the national borders drawn by the declaration of the Republic. With the Law No. 24.5.1924 issued on 506, these lines were nationalized and the UM General Directorate of Anatolian-Baghdad Railways UM was established. It was renamed as ve State Railways and Ports General Directorate amacıyla with the Law No. 31.5.1927 dated 1042 which was issued for the purpose of providing the construction and operation of the railways together and for providing wider working opportunities.
The budget added up to 1953 years our organization has managed to form a government administration, with Law No. 29.7.1953 6186 from the date of "the Republic of Turkey State Railways (TCDD) was transformed into the State Economic Enterprises under the name. Finally, with the Decree Law No. 233, the X State Economic Enterprise kon was taken.
ANKARAY LIGHT RAIL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
The Ankara Light Rail Transport System (ANKARAY) is designed to respond to the increasing transport demand of Ankara residents on the East-West axis of the city (between Söğütözü and Dikimevi).
ANKARAY, which will work on a route of 8.7km between Söğütözü-Dikimevi, consists of 11 station and 100.000m 2 warehouse workshop area.
ANKARAY meets the increased transportation demand on the east-west axis of the capital, while at the same time it meets the burden of increasing passenger demand on this route with the opening of AŞTİ.
ANKARAY is designed to serve 16: 06 to 00 at night in the morning with its 24 thousand passenger carrying capacity in one direction and hour. The daily passenger capacity is 00 and now our daily passenger number has reached 365000.
ANKARAY operation; It is implemented according to a protocol between BUGSAŞ and EGO General Directorate.
Most of our system is in the form of a “tunnel Sistem. AŞTİ-EMEK station and storage area is stable. The tunnels were constructed as open-close and drilling tunnel. The maintenance and emergency walkways in the tunnels are illuminated when necessary for reasons of operation and safety. The lighting system is activated automatically when the power supply of the trains or the trains is interrupted. In addition, there are ventilation shafts that are activated in emergency situations between two stations in the tunnel.
Our vehicle series are composed of two types ”A“ Araç B ”and one type” B “. Type A vehicles are located at the beginning and end of the trains and are connected to the B vehicle by automatic couplers. The total length of the array is 87 m.
In normal operation, the train is equipped with a complete control and lamp set. The type A tool is operated by a train driver at one end. In addition, simplified cabins are located at the terminals and used for driving in confined spaces with single vehicles or during maintenance operations.
Our A-type tools are made up of two semi-bodies connected by a rubber bellows. The vehicle has two different driver cabins. All the controls and switches used to drive the train are in the operator's cab, while in the aracı Simplified Cabinet ”there are only some controls and switches required for driving in a limited area or for maintenance.
Our B type tool consists of two parts which are connected to each other in a similar way. The vehicle has a panel at each end, the vehicle only in the restricted area or with the control and switches for use during maintenance work.
We currently have an 33 array of vehicles from our 11 vehicle. They will operate under normal operating conditions in the 9 array. The 1 array tool will be kept in reserve while the 1 array will be stored in our vehicle for maintenance and repair.
The 40 seat is available in every vehicle and the number of passengers is 162. Our vehicles are equipped with automatic train protection systems (ATP) and magnetic train protection system (MTC). These protection systems have been installed in the direction of normal traffic on all our lines dedicated to passenger traffic in order to prevent trains in the railway train and railway operations.
These protection systems:
· Monitoring of permissible speeds
· Check the route in normal traffic direction or reverse direction
· Signalization adjustments, violations
· Scissor positions
· Provides safe driving by detecting end of work area
ANKARAY vehicles work with 750 V DC electric energy. 3 mounted on the traves along the line of energy supply to the vehicles. It is provided by rail system. 3.Ray is made of conductive steel and is suspended from the conductor rail support by means of an isolator. An unwanted contact to the conductor rail; three-sided plastic cover. The 3.Ray settlement is usually located on traves and on the outside of the lines. However, it is mounted on opposite sides of emergency walkways and station platforms in tunnel areas.
Power supply of the vehicles in the workshop building is done with the help of cable hanging from the top. This system is called ”Stinge” r. Thus, it is ensured that maintenance and repair work is done without any danger.
The energy required by the system is provided by two TEDAŞ 154 / 34.5 kv transformer centers located in Maltepe and Balgat.
Energy is transferred from transformer stations to warehouse areas, Beşevler, Demirtepe and Kurtuluş stations. This 4 rectifier transformer center is connected to each other by a cable line of 34.5 kv. This arrangement ensures that the system operates at low speed even if one of the rectifier transformer centers is disabled or broken.
With the help of the SCADA system, the communication system is used to connect the control center equipment to the relevant remote connection units in the substation and passenger stations. The mimic panel is used to monitor the overall image of the 34.5 / 10 kv network as a single line diagram.
The communication system in our business, voice, data and images by transferring different types of electrical signals such as transmission from a distance from the management and management personnel to provide a service that provides communication. Communication system; It provides voice and data communication via fiber transmission network with seamless transmission network.
The radio system in the train also provides voice and data communication. In the event of any power failure in our power system, the supply of computer and data control devices and communication networks can be ensured by means of an kontrolü uninterruptible power supply kes system.
The telephone sets in all stations and lines are directly connected to the Control Center in Depo via the continuous transmission network santral OTN ındaki and they benefit from the wide range of facilities provided by our plant.
Our radio communication system 410-420 Mhz broadband over multi-frequency two-way amplifier, amplifier broadcasts along the entire line with the radio. In addition to the leaky coaxial cable installed in the communication, tunnel and stations, it is also made with antennas. The radio channels are allocated for the operating radio system, the maintenance radio system and the maneuvering area radio systems.
Two voice channels are available for direct voice communication between the central operator and trains.
Announcement system; changes in timelines, emergencies and accidents, etc. are used to publish public information. Announcements can be made locally from each station master's office or platform announcer, as well as from the Control Center.
Closed Circuit Television System (CCTV); It provides close follow-up of all kinds of movements of the stations. In order to provide visual information to the central operator in the control center with the station chief, cameras were placed on the floors of the platform and meza.
The 13 display on the center of the 11 display flows through at least 8 different cameras belonging to the XNUMX station via the continuous transmission network for remote control of the system from the control center. It is possible to select the cameras requested by the central operator and to have close observation and recording with the help of the image selection monitor.
There are two video recorders and a monitor for recording unusual occurrences of emergency situations in passenger stations.
FIRE ALARM SYSTEM
Each station consists of fire alarm panels in the office and in the central control room in the storage area. The hand-operated fire alarm buttons located in strategic locations allow fire alarms by users or personnel.
HISTORY OF TRAMING
The first tram was pulled with horses. These first trolley lines, which were built by skipping cars, were laid in 1832 in the US. In France, the 1838 is also operated by 14 de Montrond and Montbrison. A tram line was built.
This line, which was sometimes accepted as the first tramway in France, was able to serve for 10 years. The first tram line on the road was built by the engineer Laubat in France on the 1855, between Paris and Baulogne. At Laub 1853, Laubat built the same type of tramway in New York. For this reason, the road and the later buildings were called a American Railway Bu. Mounted trams 1860-1880 developed between the largest cities in Europe.
Andrew Halidie's invention of the cable tram, the 1873'de San Francisco began to be used. These trams were pulling an endless cable extending between the rails in a canal and connected to the steam driven shaft in the draw center. In this system, which is more efficient on slopes, the speed was always the same and if the cable was locked or broken, all the trams were on the road.
XIX. At the end of the century, with the developing electric drill, previous systems were abandoned. Mounted trams were replaced by electric trams.
2 In February 1888, Frank J. Spraque pioneered the rapid development of an electric tram in the United States with a variety of innovations on a very sharp profile line in Richmond.
At the 1834, Thomas Devenport, a blacksmith at Brandon in Vermont, built a small battery-powered electric motor and used it to operate a small wagon on the rail. At the 1860, the US GFTrain opened three tram lines in London and one at Birkenhead.
A tram system was installed at 1862 in Salford, 1865 in Liverpool. The invention of the dynamon (generator) enabled the electrical power to be transmitted to the trams via an overhead line. This method spread rapidly in England, Europe and America.
European trams had a curved rod, called a spring or horn, or an adjustable mechanism called a pantograph, to draw power from the overhead line. In the US, only one-horned trams were used. In the UK, an underground pipe system was also used instead of an overhead line from time to time.
In the 1920, the tram was quite developed. In these years it was the only public transportation vehicle in large and medium-sized cities.
However, with the emergence of private bus companies and cars, the trams could not show themselves in this competition. And immediately, many places have disappeared. In the US, cars and buses were replaced by 1830s. This change was accelerated in 1940-50. In the UK, 1930 began to replace the tram with the development of two-story buses. At the beginning of the 1950, the tram was lifted in London. The last tram line in Paris was closed in 1930s. Upon this situation, American tram network managers started to research a fast tram type. After a trial period, 1936 PCC trams were put into service in the USA and Canada between 1951 and 5000. PCC trams have been produced in Belgium and Czechoslovakia since 1951. In other countries and especially in Germany, it was ensured that advanced tram types were produced by using more electronics and reused.
TRAM IN TURKEY
1896 in Turkey for the first time in the tram by Konstantin Karopano master, began to run a troupe of in-Besiktas Azakkap the line. This equestrian tram was converted into an electric transformer in 1909 and put into operation on different lines. In 1914, the trams in Istanbul were completely electrified. In Izmir, the use of trams, starting with the 1884 Konak-Göztepe line, started to be preferred in the urban life of the Saray-Kasaba Station trellars and the crowded city environment, so the trams could not meet the need. For this reason, the tramway operation in Istanbul was first removed on the Anatolian side and on the European side at the 1967. In Izmir, 1954 stopped the tram.
In 1990, the railroad was started to be re-installed between Tünel and Taksim in Beyoğlu. Subsequently, the Light Rail Public Transport system was introduced in Istanbul.
THE IMPORTANCE OF RAILED SYSTEM IN URBAN TRANSPORTATION
· Due to the high efficiency of rail vehicles, energy consumption is 3 times less than buses.
· Although the efficiency in electrical machines is above% 80, this ratio does not exceed% 30 in diesel and steam machines.
· Since the system is designed in electric trains, there is no problem of transportation, storage and re-loading of the fuel. This means that there are no costs such as transportation and storage, which contributes to the economy of the country in this respect. On the other hand, there is no waste of coal and fuel.
· Thousands of traffic accidents occur every year, even in countries where technological development and urban transport is high. Thousands of people die in these accidents, and so many are crippled. In addition, trillions of property damage occur. Material and moral damage destroys the morale of the society and it is a major blow to the national economy. In rail systems there are no such situations, or they are almost none.
· Rail systems that are put into service in İstanbul, Ankara and Konya provide very cheap service to the 1 / 4 of the country's population with minimum personnel.
1 billion 5,5 billion bus for buses, 1,8 billion for railways and XNUMX billion for energy consumption.
· Rail systems have environmental characteristics that do not create air pollution.
· Rail vehicles go through tunnels or special roads that are independent of city traffic. Therefore, they will not make any negative contributions to the city traffic, but because they take the public transportation from buses and minibuses, they cause traffic relief. For example, Ankaray can carry 9 buses, 450 cars at a time.
· The vibrations of the Karataşıts and the bad weather caused by the snow and rain in the winter disrupt the roads, and the potholes formed on the damaged roads cause damage to the other vehicles and the transportation disruptions cannot be done in time. The maintenance and repair costs of such roads are very high. This is not the case in rail system vehicles.
· Hundreds of tons of CO2 gas is emitted from the exits of the wheeled public transportation vehicles, which has a significant impact on the increase of air pollution of metropolitan areas. In addition to CO2, the highly toxic gases PbO, NO, CO and other unburned gases from the exhausts of rubber wheeled vehicles mix with the air of the cities. There is no such problem in rail systems.
· Rail vehicles offer no noise, no vibration, a spacious and safe environment.
· Since the stations are closed, passengers are not affected by weather conditions.
· In the winter, trains run on trains and the trains are warm and in summer the trains are cool and the trains are cool and passengers travel in a comfortable environment.
· For 1 million passengers, the bus pollutes the air at a rate of% 2, while rail systems do not damage the environment in any way.
· 1 million passengers are transported by 300 tons of exhaust gas, this ratio is zero in rail systems.
· In rail systems, there is no problem in vehicles such as traffic and being late. Therefore, there is no expectation of waiting in vain. For example, Ankaray earns 76 minutes per passenger per day and the national economy saves 80.000 hourly.
· Electric trains accelerate very quickly and stop very quickly. This shortens travel time, increases the carrying capacity.
· Since the speed of travel with rail systems is very high, the loss of time in the journey is minimized. While the average travel speed is 40km / s in rail systems, this speed does not exceed 15-20 km / h on buses.
· In electric trains, there is a driver's cab at both head of the train. When the train arrives at the last station, the driver passes to the other side of the cabin and continues in the other direction. Therefore, the locomotive's maneuvering and crossing to the other side of the problem and therefore no time loss.
· 8 floors for buses and 15 floors for buses are XNUMX times higher in passenger density for the same number of passengers as rail systems.
For the light rail system decided by the Ankara Metropolitan Municipality in the 1990 year, the section of the light rail system line proposed to be commissioned for the 2015 target year in the Ankara Urban Transportation Master Plan was handled in the city center and the line was In order to be able to respond with the transportation service and to connect with the new Ankara Intercity passenger terminal, the project has been designed in the route of Terminal-Beşevler-Tandoğan-Maltepe-Kızılay-Dikimevi.
Transportation studies, preliminary project and feasibility studies and tender documents The project was prepared with the facilities of the General Directorate of EGO and an international tender was opened on 21.05.1991. The Consortium of AEG-BREDA-SİMKO-KUTLUTAŞ, which was led by Siemens, won the tender and then the Bayındır-Yüksel partnership was replaced by the Kutlutaş Consortium.
EGO General Directorate and the Consortium signed a construction contract on 27.09.1991. The contract value was determined as 518.244.437 DM.
The line, which started construction at August 1992 and opened to operation, consists of 8725 m length and 11 station. 11 33 will serve with a fleet of vehicles. The travel time from Dikimevi to Istanbul is 13 minutes. The capacity of a directory of 3 units (with 6 contact / m2 ratio) is the 915 passenger (A vehicle capacity is 305 passenger).
The loan agreements of the system, which is completely realized by external credit, were signed by XORUMX under the guarantorship of the Undersecretariat of Treasury and the General Directorate of EGO.
Ankara Light Rail Transport System 30 was put into service on August 1996.